Tindakan Pengembalian Residu Panen Tebu untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas Tanah dan Produktivitas Tebu (Saccharum officinarum L.)

Rivandi Pranandita Putra, Muhammad Rasyid Ridla Ranomahera, Nindya Arini, Whisnu Febry Afrianto

Abstract


Tebu (Saccharum officinarum L.) merupakan salah satu komoditas perkebunan stretegis di Indonesia. Penanaman tebu secara monokultur yang sering dilakukan selama bertahun-tahun di suatu wilayah yang sama di Indonesia menyebabkan penurunan kualitas fisik, kimia, maupun biologi tanah. Hal tersebut berdampak pada penurunan produktivitas tebu. Implementasi metode green cane harvesting-trash blanketing dapat membantu mempertahankan, bahkan meningkatkan kualitas tanah. Green cane-trash blanketing dilakukan dengan cara memanen tebu secara manual tanpa membakar residu (green cane harvesting), kemudian residu tersebut dicacah dan dikembalikan ke lahan tebu. Cacahan residu tebu akan terdekomposisi dan menjadi sumber bahan organik di lahan tersebut. Implementasi metode green cane-trash blanketing di perkebunan tebu juga memberikan berbagai manfaat lainnya, antara lain meningkatkan populasi makro- dan mikrofauna tanah, menurunkan tingkat pertumbuhan gulma, dan mengurangi evaporanspirasi tanah atau menjaga kadar air tanah. Beberapa studi juga melaporkan peningkatan hasil dan produktivitas tebu pada lahan yang menerapkan metode green cane-trash blanketing. Dalam prakteknya, green cane-trash blanketing dapat dilakukan secara manual atau mekanis, baik pada tanaman baru maupun keprasan. Prosesnya dimulai dari pemanenan tebu secara manual atau tanpa pembakaran, pencacahan serasah tebu, aplikasi di atas lahan, penambahan (bio)aktivator, dan inkorporasi serasah dengan tanah. Green cane-trash blanketing perlu diterapkan oleh petani tebu dan pabrik gula untuk meningkatkan kualitas tanah, yang pada akhirnya berimbas pada peningkatan hasil dan produktivitas tebu.


Keywords


green cane harvesting-trash blanketing, kualitas tanah, produktivitas, tebu

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abegunde, VO, Sibanda, M & Obi, A 2020, Determinants of the adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices by small-scale farming households in King Cetshwayo district municipality, South Africa, Sustainability, 12(1): 1-27.

Akhadiarto, S 2008, Pemanfaatan limbah tanaman tebu untuk pakan sapi, Jurnal Rekayasa Lingkungan, 4(3): 149-154.

Astuti, AD 2019, Analisis potensi dampak lingkungan dari budidaya tebu menggunakan pendekatan life cycle assessment (LCA), Jurnal Litbang, 15(1): 51-64.

Basit, A & Nurhidayati 2016, Manajemen residu untuk meningkatkan serapan hara N dan S, hasil tebu dan gula dalam budidaya tebu (Saccharum officinarum L.) lahan kering, Prosiding Seminar Nasional Hasil Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat LPPM, Universitas Islam Malang, Malang, pp. 121-126.

Batubara, RP & Listyarini, E 2017, Kajian aplikasi seresah tebu dan urea terhadap ketersediaan nitrogen dalam tanah PT. Perkebunan Nusantara X Jengkol – Kediri, Jurnal Tanah dan Sumberdaya Lahan, 4(1): 411-419.

Bonnett, GD, Salter, B & Alberston, PL 2001, Biology of sucker: Late-formed shoots in sugarcane, Annals of Applied Biology, 138: 17-26.

Carvalho, JL, Nogueirol, RC, Menandro, LMS, Bordonal, RO, Borges, CD, Cantarella, H & Franco, HCJ 2017, Agronomic and environmental implications of sugarcane straw removal: A major review, GCB Bioenergy, 9: 1181-1195.

Carvalho, KS, Vianna, MS, Nassif, DSP, Costa, LG, Folegatti, MV & Marin, FR 2019, Effect of soil straw cover on evaporation, transpiration, and evapotranspiration in sugarcane cultivation, Australian Journal of Crop Science, 13(08): 1362-1368.

Chandiposha, M 2013, Potential impact of climate change in sugarcane and mitigation strategies in Zimbabwe, African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8: 2814-2818.

Chapin III, FS, Matson, PA & Mooney, HA 2002, Principles of terrestrial ecosystem ecology, Springer Verlag, United States of America, 529 p.

Concenço, G, Leme, JRA, Silva, CJ, Marques, RF, Silva, LBX, Correia, IVT 2016, Weed occurrence in sugarcane as function of variety and ground straw management, Planta Daninha, 34(2): 219-228.

Dariah, A, Sutono, S, Nurida, NL, Hartatik, W & Pratiwi, E 2015, Pembenah tanah untuk meningkatkan produktivitas lahan pertanian, Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan, 9(2): 67-84.

de Aquino, GS, Medina, CC, Shahab, M, Santiago, AD, Cunha, ACB, Kussaba, DAO, Carvalho, JB & Moreira, A 2018, Does straw mulch partial-removal from soil interfere in yield and industrial quality sugarcane? A long term study, Industrial Crops and Products, 111: 573-578.

Dhanapal, R, Tayade AS, Bhaskaran A & Geetha P 2018, Efficient water management in sugarcane with composted coir pith and sugarcane trash under tropical Indian conditions, Sugar Tech, 21(2): 256-264.

Diana, NE, Sujak, S & Djumali, D 2017, Efektivitas aplikasi pupuk majemuk NPK terhadap produktivitas dan pendapatan petani tebu. Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat & Minyak Industri, 9(2): 43-53.

Dianpratiwi, T, Wibowo, EP & Wibowo, H 2018. Daya saing usahatani tebu terhadap komoditas eksisting di wilayah kerja Pabrik Gula Wonolangan Kabupaten Probolinggo tahun 2018, Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 33(1): 57-67.

Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan 2016, Tree crop estate statistics of Indonesia 2015-2017 (Statistik perkebunan Indonesia 2015-2017), diakses pada 22 Desember 2020, (http://bit.ly/39Swm9Q).

Elkins, NZ & Whitford, WG 1982, The role of microarthropods and nematodes in decomposition in a semi-arid ecosystem, Oecologia, 55(3): 303-210.

Erlina, Y, Wicaksono, KP & Barunawati, N 2017, Studi pertumbuhan dua varietas tebu (Saccharum officinarum L.) dengan jenis bahn tanam berbeda, Jurnal Produksi Tanaman, 5(1): 33-38.

Furqon, A & Kusumawati, A 2018, Perbandingan aplikasi seresah dibakar dan diserak tanpa dibakar terhadap pertumbuhan dan produktivitas tanaman tebu (Saccharum officinarum L.) di distrik cinta manis PT Perkebunan Nusantara VII, AGROISTA: Jurnal Agroteknologi, 2(2): 108-117.

Galdos, MV, Cerri, CC & Cerri, CEP 2009, Soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane in Brazil, Geoderma, 153: 347-352.

Goenadi, DH, Susila, WR, Nahdodin & Malian, H 2005, Prospek dan arah pengembangan agribisnis tebu, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Kementerian Pertanian, Jakarta, 35 p.

Goenadi, DH & Santi LP 2006, Aplikasi bioaktivator SuperDec dalam pengomposan limbah padat organic tebu, Buletin Agronomi, 34(3): 173-180.

Gosnell, JM & Lonsdale, JE 1977, Effects of irrigation level and trash management on sugarcane, 16th Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, pp 565-585.

Gunawan, S, Koto, S, Aji, P & Widarto, A 2017, Sugarcane trash management after manual harvest and its impact on productivity, Proceeding of the International Sugarcane Conference in Conjuction with World Plantation Conferences and Exhibition (WPLACE), Indonesian Sugar Research Institute, 9 p.

Gunawan, S, Aji, P, Widarta, A & Misdi 2018, Penerapan trash management pada tanaman ratoon sebagai upaya peningkatan kesuburan tanah dan produktivitas tebu, diakses pada 22 Desember 2020, (http://bit.ly/3ixT0Ix).

Gustanti, Y, Chairul & Syam, Z 2014, Pemberian mulsa jerami padi (Oryza sativa) terhadap gulma dan produksi tanaman kacang kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merr), Jurnal Biologi Universitas Andalas, 3(1): 73-79.

Hardy, G 1990, An integrated approach to weed control management in the Cuban sugar industry, Proceedings X ALAM Congress, Havana, pp 46-55.

James, G 2004, Sugarcane (2nd Edition), Blackwell Science Ltd, p 115.

Jenjariyakosoln, S, Gheewala, HS, Sajjakulnukit, B & Garivait, S 2014, Energy and GHG emission reduction potential of power generation from sugarcane residues in Thailand, Energy for Sustainable Development, 23: 32-45.

Karve, P, Mabajan, HY, Salunkbe, RM & Karve, AD 2001, Boiling point 47: A chain of technologies for using sugarcane trash as a household fuel, Practical Action, diakses pada 20 Januari 2021, (https://bit.ly/2KBrhKA), pp 16-18.

Kementerian Pertanian 2016, Statistik Perkebunan Indonesia – Tebu 2015-2017. Direktorat Jendral Perkebunan, Kementerian Pertanian.

Kementerian Pertanian 2020, Produktivitas tebu menurut provinsi, 2016-2020, diakses pada 22 Desember 2020, (https://bit.ly/3a5Ivsn).

Khaehanchanpong, Y, Ahamed, T & Takigawa T 2017, Design, fabrication and performance evaluation of an inter-row cultivator for sugarcane fields, Inventions, 2: 25.

Leite, JM, Ciampitti, IA, Mariano, E, Vieira-Megda, MX, Trivelin, PCO 2016, Nutrient partitioning and stoichiometry in unburnt sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels, Frontiers in Plant Science, 7: 466.

Lestari, EK, Fauzi, A, Hutagaol, MP & Hidayat, A 2015, Keuntungan petani tebu rakyat melalui kemitraan di Kabupaten Jember, Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat & Minyak Industri, 7(2): 79-89.

Liao, Q, Wei, G, Chen, G, Liu, B, Huang, D & Li, Y 2014, Effect of trash addition to the soil on microbial communities and physico-chemical properties of soils and growth of sugarcane plants, Sugar Tech, 16(4): 400-404.

Lorenzi, HJ, Gandini, MO & Gazon, AL 1989, Trash blankets: The potential to control weeds and the effect on ratoon cane development. Proceedings XX ISSCT Congress, São Paulo, Brazil, pp 53-56.

Luca, EF, Chaplot, V, Mutema, M, Feller, C, Ferreira, ML, Cerri, CC & Couto, HTZ 2018, Effect of conversion from sugarcane preharvest burning to residues green-trashing on SOC stocks and soil fertility status: Results from different soil conditions in Brazil, Geoderma, 310: 238-248.

Macedo, NM, Botelho, PSM & Campos MBS 2003, Chemical control of the leafhopper-root sugarcane and impact on the population of arthropods, STAB - Açúcar, Álcool e Subprodutos, 21: 30-33.

Magalhães, PSG & Braunbeck, OA 2014, Sugarcane and straw harvesting for ethanol production, in Cortez LAB (ed.), Sugarcane bioethanol – R&D for productivity and sustainability, Blucher, São Paulo, pp 465-475.

Marin, FR, Thorburn, PJ, da Costa, LG & Otto, R 2014, Simulating long-term effects of trash management on sugarcane yield for Brazilian cropping systems, Sugar Tech, 16: 164-173.

Martins Filho, MV, Liccioti, TT, Pereira, GT, Marques Júnior, J & Sanchez, RB 2009, Perdas de solo e nutrientes por erosão num Argissolo com resíduos vegetais de cana-de-açúcar, Engenharia Agrícola, 29: 8–18.

Mashoko, L, Mbohwa, C & Thomas, VM 2010, LCA of the South African sugar industry, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 53(6): 793-807.

McCray, JM, Ji, S & Baucum, LE 2015, Sugarcane yield response to furrow-applied organic amendments on sand soils. International Journal of Agronomy, 2015: 1-9.

Meier, EA, Thorburn, PJ, Wegener, MK & Basford, KE 2006, The availability of nitrogen from sugarcane trash on contrasting soils in the wet tropics of North Queensland, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 75: 101–114.

Misran, E 2005, Industri tebu menuju zero waste industry, Jurnal Teknologi Proses, 4(2): 6-10.

Mukesh, S & Rani, V 2017, Performance evaluation of machinery for sugarcane handling and trash management, International Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 10(1): 234-238.

Muñoz-Arboleda, F & Quintero-Duran, R 2009, Trash management after green cane harvesting and its effect on productivity and soil respiration, 27th Proceedings of the Australian Sugar Cane Technology, Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, Bundaberg, Australia, pp 1-8.

Murni, R, Akmal, S & Ginting, BL 2008, Buku Ajar Teknologi Pemanfaatan Limbah untuk Pakan, Universitas Jambi, Jambi.

Ng. Cheong, LR & Teeluck, M 2016, The practice of green cane trash blanketing in the irrigated zone of Mauritius: Effects on soil moisture and water use efficiency of sugarcane, Sugar Tech, 18(2): 124-133.

Núñez, O & Spaans, E 2008, Evaluation of green-cane harvesting and crop management with a trash-blanket, Sugar Tech, 10(1): 29-35.

Nur, T, Noor, AR & Elma, M 2016, Pembuatan pupuk organik cair dari sampah organik rumah tangga dengan penambahan bioaktivator EM4 (effective microorganisms), Konversi, 5(2): 5-12.

Nurhidayati, Sholihah, A & Hadiyono, ME 2017, Efek residu berbagai macam pengelolaan sisa tanaman tebu dan pemupukan N dan S terhadap pertumbuhan, hasil dan gula tanaman tebu keprasan (Saccharum officinarum L.), Jurnal Folium, 1(1): 1-13.

Olivier, FC & Singels, A 2012, The effect of crop residue layers on evapotranspiration, growth and yield of irrigated sugarcane, Water SA, 38(1): 77-86.

Oliviera, MW, Trivelin, PCO, Kingston, G & Vitti, AC 2002, Decomposition and release of nutrients from sugarcane trash in two agricultural environments in Brazil, 24th Proceedings of the Australian Sugar Cane Technology, Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, Bundaberg, Australia, pp 1-10.

Oliveira, APP, Alves, BJR, Anjos, LHCD, Lima, E, Zonta, E, Pereira, W & Soares, PFC 2017, Agronomic performance of green cane fertilized with ammonium sulfate in a coastal tableland soil. Bragantia, 76(2): 246-256.

Patil, RA & Deshannavar, UB 2017, Dry sugarcane leaves: Renewable biomass resources for making briquettes, International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 10(1), 232-235.

Pawirosemadi, M 2011, Dasar-dasar teknologi budidaya tebu dan pengolahan hasilnya, Universitas Negeri Malang Press, Malang, 812 p.

Peraturan Gubernur Sumatera Selatan 2016, Peraturan Daerah Provinsi Sumatera Selatan Nomor 8 Tahun 2016 tentang Pengendalian Kebakaran Hutan dan/atau Lahan, diakses pada 1 Maret 2021, (https://peraturan.bpk.go.id/Home/Details/35957).

Perdinan, Dewi, NWSP & Dharma, AW 2018, Lesson learnt from Smart Rice actions in Indonesia, Future of Food: Journal of Food, Agriculture and Society, 6(2): 9-20.

Purnomo, EA, Sutrisno, E & Sumiyati, S 2017, Pengaruh variasi C/N rasio terhadap produksi kompos dan kandungan kalium (K), pospat (P) dari batang pisang dengan kombinasi kotoran sapi dalam sistem vermicomposting, Jurnal Teknik Lingkungan, 6(2): 1-15.

Purwanti, EW 2017, Pengelolaan hama terpadu (PHT) berbasis konservasi dan augmentasi detrivora di lahan padi sawah (Oryza sativa L.), Universitas Brawijaya, Malang.

Pusat Penelitian Gula PTPN X 2015, Bukti Penyerahan Analisa Pupuk, PTPN X, Kediri.

Putra, LK, Kristini, A, Achadian EM & Damayanti, TA 2013, Sugarcane streak mosaic virus in Indonesia: Distribution, characterisation, yield losses and Management Approaches, Sugar Tech, 16(4): 392-399.

Putra, RP, Ranomahera, MRR, Rizaludin, MS, Supriyanto, R & Dewi, VAK 2020, Investigating environmental impacts of long-term monoculture of sugarcane farming in Indonesia through DPSIR framework, Biodiversitas, 21(9): 4945-4958.

Ranomahera, MRR, Puspitasari, AR, Putra, RP, Gustomo, D & Winarsih, S 2020, Agronomic performance and economic benefits of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) under drip irrigation for sandy and clay soils in East Java, Indonesia, Indonesian Soil and Climate Journal, 44(2): 141-153.

Rivera-Cadavid, L, Manyoma-Velásquez, PC & Manotas-Duque, DF 2019, Supply chain optimization for energy cogeneration using sugarcane crop residues (SCR), Sustainability, 11(23): 6565.

Robertson, FA & Thorburn, PJ 2007, Decomposition of sugarcane harvest residue in different climatic zones, Soil Research, 45(1): 1-11.

Roni, NGK 2015, Konservasi tanah dan air, Buku Ajar Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Udayana, Bali, 30 p.

Salter, B, Schroeder, B & Perna, J 2010, Farming systems and their effect on the response of sugarcane to nitrogen, 32nd Proceedings of the Australian Sugar Cane Technology, Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, Bundaberg, Australia, pp. 210-220.

Sandhu, H, Singh, M, Gilbert, R, Morgan, K, Rice, R, Baucum, L, Shine Jr., J & Irey, M 2018, Effects of harvest method on microclimate in Florida sugarcane, IFAS Extension, University of Florida, diakses pada 20 Januari 2021, (https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/sc100).

Saputri, NK & Respatiadi, H 2018, Policy Reform to Lower Sugar Prices in Indonesia. Center for Indonesian Policy Studies, diakses pada 25 Maret 2021, (https://repository.cips-indonesia.org/publications/270481/policy-reform-to-lower-sugar-prices-in-indonesia).

Simamora, C 2006. Inokulasi mikroba selulotik untuk mempercepat proses pengomposan sampah pasar dan pengaruh kompos terhadap produksi dan usaha tani sayuran, Tesis S2, Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Simanungkalit, RDM, Suriadikarta, DA, Saraswati, R, Setyorini, D & Hartatik W 2006, Pupuk organik dan pupuk hayati, Kementerian Pertanian Republik Indonesia, diakses pada 22 Desember 2020, (http://bit.ly/3o4PuXa).

Singh, SN, Singh, AK, Malik, JPS, Kumar, R, Sunderpal & Sharma, ML 2012, Cultural-practice packages and trash management effects on sugarcane ratoons under sub-tropical climatic conditions in India, Journal of Agricultural Science, 150: 237-247.

Skocaj, DM, Everingham, YL & Schroeder, BL 2013, Nitrogen management guidelines for sugarcane production in Australia: Can these be modified for wet tropical conditions using seasonal climate forecasting?, Springer Science Reviews, 1: 51-71.

Soebandrijo, SH, Wahyuni, SA & Soeharjan, M 2000, Peranan serasah dan gulma dalam meningkatkan keanekaragaman hayati dan pengendalian serangga hama kapas di Indonesia, Prosiding Simposium Keanekaragaman Hayati Arthropoda pada Perkembangan Jambu Mete dan Strategi Pengendalian Hama Utamanya, pp. 277-284.

Srivastava, AK & Rai, MK 2012, Sugarcane production: Impact of climate change and its mitigation, Biodiversitas, 13(4): 214-227.

Stevenson, FJ 1982. Organic forms of soil nitrogen in agricultural soils, Agronomy 22 ed., Madison, WI, pp 67-122.

Stirling, G, Hayden, H, Pattison, T & Stirling, M 2016, Soil health, soil biology, soilborne diseases and sustainable agriculture: A guide, CSIRO Publishing, Australia, 280 p.

Sugandi, W, Setiawan, RPA & Hermawan, W 2013, Uji kinerja unit pemotong serasah tebu tipe reel, Bionatura, 15(3): 149–155.

Sujak, Sunarto DA & Subiyakto 2018, Pengaruh penambahan biomasa di lahan kering terhadap diversitas arthropoda tanah dan produktivitas tebu, Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat & Minyak Industri, 10(1): 21-31.

Sulaiman, AA, Sulaeman Y, Mustikasari, N, Nursyamsi, D & Syakir, AM 2019, Increasing sugar production in Indonesia through land suitability analysis and sugar mill restructuring, Land, 8(4): 61.

Surdianto, Y, Setiawan, BI, Prastowo & Saptomo, SK 2012, Peningkatan resapan air tanah dengan saluran resapan dan rorak untuk meningkatkan produktivitas belimbing manis (studi kasus di kota Depok), Jurnal Irigasi, 7(1): 1-15.

Suryanto, A 2019, Teknologi produksi tanaman budi daya, UB Press, Malang, Indonesia, 140 p.

Tayade, AS, Geetha, P, Anusha, S, Dhanapal, R & Hari, K 2017, Effect of green cane trash blanketing and microbial consortia application on soil compaction and productivity of mechanically harvested sugarcane ratoon crops, Journal of Sugarcane Research, 7(2): 112-120.

Tórtora, ML, Vera, L, Naval, NG, de Ullivarri, JF, Digonzelli, P & Romero, ER 2013, Effect of sugar cane trash blanketing on the development of microorganisms of agronomic and environmental interest, Revista Industrial y Agrícola de Tucumán, 90(1): 61-68.

Toharisman, A & Triantarti 2016, An overview of sugar sector in Indonesia, Sugar Tech, 18(6): 636-641.

Tsao, CC, Campbell, JE, Mena-Carrasco, M, Spak, SN & Carmichael, GR 2011, Increased estimates of air-pollution emissions from Brazilian sugar-cane ethanol, Nature Climate Change, 2: 53-57.

van Antwerpen, R 2010, Information Sheet: The pros and cons of trashing or burning at harvest, South African Sugarcane Research Institute, South Africa, 4 p.

Vianna, M, Carvalho, KD, Marin, FR & Nassif, DSP 2020, Modelling the trash blanket effect on sugarcane growth and water use, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 172: 105361.

Widiyaningrum, P & Lisdiana 2015, Efektivitas proses pengomposan sampah daun dengan tiga sumber activator berbeda, Rekayasa, 13(2): 107-113.

Wijayanti, R 2017, Pengaruh pemberian urea terhadap laju dekomposisi serasah tebu di Pusat Penelitian Gula Jengkol, Kabupaten Kediri, Jurnal Tanah dan Sumberdaya Lahan, 5(1): 793-799.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v13n1.2021.48-66

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2021 Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat & Minyak Industri

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

          


Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat, & Minyak Industri Editorial Office:

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat
Jalan Raya Karangploso Km 4, Malang 65152
Jawa Timur, Indonesia
Telp: +62-341-491447
Fax: +62-341-485121
Email: balittas@litbang.pertanian.go.id
Website: http://balittas.litbang.pertanian.go.id


View My Stats