Peluang Pengembangan Pengendalian Penyakit Luka Api pada Tebu di Indonesia

Nurul Hidayah

Abstract


Penyakit luka api merupakan salah satu penyakit utama pada tanaman tebu. Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh jamur Sporisorium scitamineum yang menginfeksi tanaman melalui mata tunas. Tanaman yang terinfeksi memiliki gejala yang sangat khas yakni terbentuknya cambuk pada bagian ujung tanaman. Cambuk ini terdiri atas teliospora jamur yang berperan sebagai sumber inokulum yang ditularkan melalui angin. Penyakit luka api akan berkembang dengan baik pada kondisi panas dan kering. Saat ini penyakit luka api telah menyebar di hampir seluruh pertanaman tebu di Indonesia. Varietas tebu yang tadinya diklaim tahan terhadap penyakit luka api, saat ini dilaporkan banyak yang terinfeksi juga. Pengetahuan tentang jamur S. scitamineum dan infeksinya pada tanaman tebu yang menyebabkan gejala penyakit luka api ini sangat penting untuk dapat menentukan metode pengendalian yang tepat. Review ini bertujuan membahas peluang teknik pengendalian luka api pada tebu yang dapat diterapkan pada agroekosistem tebu di Indonesia. Oleh karenanya dalam review ini akan memaparkan informasi tentang morfologi dan biologi jamur, mekanisme infeksi penyakit, mekanisme ketahanan tebu terhadap patogen, penyebarannya di Indonesia dan dunia, serta strategi pengendalian dan peluang pengembangannya di Indonesia.

The Opportunity to Develop Control Methods of Smut Disease on Sugarcane in Indonesia

Abstract


Smut disease caused by a basidiomycete fungus, Sporisorium scitamineum, is one of important diseases on sugarcane. The fungus infects the cane through the buds. The infected cane has a very distinctive symptom i.e. the emergence of whip-like structure at the top of the plant. This structure consists of fungal teliospores covered by a thin layer of plant tissue. These teliospores play a significant role as a source of primary inoculum which can be transmitted by wind assistance. The disease was favored by dry warm climates. Currently, the sugarcane smut disease has been widely spread to almost all of sugarcane plantations in Indonesia. In addition, sugarcane variety, which was previously known as a resistant variety, it becomes susceptible. It is important to understand the behavior of the pathogen, mechanism of infection and factors affecting disease development to determine a proper control method for the disease. This review aims to discuss the opportunity of strategy for the control of smut disease on sugarcane which can be applied on sugarcane agroecosystem in Indonesia. Therefore, the review will elaborate the characteristics of the pathogen including its morphology and biology, mechanism of infection, resistance mechanisms of the host to pathogen infection, distribution of the disease in Indonesia and across the world, factors affecting disease development, and management of disease control for the smut disease and its opportunity to be developed in Indonesia.





Keywords


Sporisorium scitamineum, luka api, mekanisme ketahanan, varietas tahan, sugarcane smut disease, resistance mechanisms, resistant variety

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v12n2.2020.94-108

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