Karakteristik Biodiesel Kemiri Sunan dengan Katalis NaOH dan KOH

Garusti Garusti, Ahmad Dhiaul Khuluq, Joko Hartono, Prima Diarini Riajaya, Rully Dyah Purwati

Abstract


Minyak non pangan seperti minyak biji kemiri sunan berpeluang digunakan sebagai bahan baku biodiesel. Masalah yang muncul dalam pembuatan biodiesel adalah reaksi transesterifikasi tanpa katalis berlangsung sangat lambat sehingga dikhawatirkan reaksinya tidak stabil, serta kebutuhan input energi yang sangat tinggi menjadikan tidak layak teknis. Oleh karena itu, untuk mempercepat reaksi transesterifikasi diperlukan katalis. Penggunaan KOH 1% dan NaOH 0,75% sebagai katalis pada proses transesterifikasi dapat mempercepat reaksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik biodiesel dari minyak biji kemiri sunan, campuran dari beberapa aksesi, yang dihasilkan dengan katalis NaOH 0,75% dan KOH 1 % dibandingkan dengan SNI 04-7182-2015 tentang Biodiesel. Metode pembuatan biodiesel yang digunakan meliputi tahapan degumming, transesterifikasi, separasi dan pencucian. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Kimia Tanaman Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat, Malang pada bulan Agustus-Desember 2019. Biodiesel kemiri sunan menggunakan katalis NaOH 0,75% memiliki nilai kadar air 0,03%, densitas 0,89 (g/cm3 ), angka asam 0,38 mg/KOH/g, angka iod 42,67, viskositas kinematik pada suhu 40 °C 5,45 °C, dan titik nyala 173 °C. Biodiesel dengan penambahan katalis NaOH 0,75% menghasilkan mutu lebih baik dari penambahan katalis KOH 1%. Biodiesel dengan katalis NaOH 0,75% sudah memenuhi SNI 04-7182-2015 tentang Biodiesel pada parameter mutu yang diukur (kadar air, densitas, angka asam, angka iod, viskositas kinematik, dan titik nyala). Parameter lain dalam SNI 04-7182-2015 yang belum dilaporkan dalam penelitian ini perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut untuk biodiesel minyak kemiri sunan menggunakan katalis NaOH 0,75%.

Characteristics of Toxic-Candlenut Biodiesel with NaOH and KOH Catalysts

Non-food oils, such as toxic candlenut seed oil, have the opportunity to be used as raw material for biodiesel. The problem that arises in biodiesel process is the slowly transesterification reaction, when without a catalyst will cause unstable reaction, need very high energy inputs, so that makes it technically unfeasible. Therefore, a catalyst is needed to accelerate the transesterification reaction. The use of 1% KOH and 0.75% NaOH in the transesterification process can accelerate the reaction. This study was aimed to determine the characteristics of biodiesel from toxic candlenut oil, a mixture of several accessions of the toxic candlenuts, which was produced with 1% KOH and 0.75% NaOH catalyst.  The results were then compared to the characteristics of those determined in SNI 04-7182-2015 of Biodiesel. The method in producing biodiesel included the stages of degumming, transesterification, separation and washing. The experiment was conducted in Phytochemical Laboratory of IRSFCRI in August to December 2019. Toxic candlenut biodiesel using 0.75% NaOH catalyst has a value of moisture content (0.03%), density (0.89 g/cm3), acid number (0.38 mg/KOH/g), iodine number (42.67), kinematic viscosity at temperature 40°C (5.45°C), and flash point (173°C). Biodiesel quality with 0.75% NaOH is better than that of 1% KOH catalyst. Biodiesel with 0.75% NaOH catalyst has achieved the requirement of the SNI 04-7182-2015 on Biodiesel on almost all parameters (i.e., water content, density, acid number, iodine number, kinematic viscosity, and flash point). Other parameters in SNI 04-7182-2015 that have not been reported in this study need further research on biodiesel of toxic candlenut oil using 0.75% NaOH catalyst. Toxic candlenut biodiesel is expected to be used for biofuel.


Keywords


biodiesel, metil ester, kemiri sunan, katalis basa; Keywords : biodiesel, methyl ester, sunan candlenut, base catalyst

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdullah, Jaya, J.D., Rodiansono, 2010. Optimasi Jumlah Katalis KOH dan NaOH pada Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Minyak Kelapa Sawit Menggunakan Kopelarut. Sains dan Terap. Kim. 4, 79–89.

Adekunle, A.S., Oyekunle, J.A.O., Obisesan, O.R., Ojo, Oluwaseyi Samson, Ojo, Olatunji Seyi, 2016. Effects of degumming on biodiesel properties of some non-conventional seedoils. Energy Reports 2, 188–193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2016.07.001

Aunillah, A., Pranowo, D., 2012. Karakteristik Biodiesel Kemiri Sunan [ Reutealis trisperma ( Blanco ) Airy Shaw ] Menggunakan Proses Transesterifikasi Dua Tahap. Bul. RISTRI 3, 193–200.

Baidawi, A., Latif, I., Rachmaniah, O., 2008. Transesterifikasi dengan Co-Solvent sebagai salah satu alternatif Peningkatan Yield Metil Ester pada Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Crude Palm Oil ( CPO ).

Bajpai, D., Tyagi, V.K., 2006. Biodiesel: Source, Production, Composition, Properties and its Benefits. J. Oleo Sci. 55, 487–502. https://doi.org/10.5650/jos.55.487

Berry, B., Herman, M., Pranowo, D., Wahyudi, A., 2009. Karakteristik minyak kemiri sunan ( aleurites trisperma blanco ) sebagai bahan bakar nabati. Pros. Semin. Nas. Tek. Kim. 2009 91–98.

Bilgin, A., Gülüm, M., Koyuncuoglu, İ., Nac, E., Cakmak, A., 2015. Determination of Transesterification Reaction Parameters Giving the Lowest Viscosity Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel Determination of transesterification reaction parameters giving the lowest viscosity waste cooking oil biodiesel. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.318

Boog, J.H.F., Silveira, E.L.C., De Caland, L.B., Tubino, M., 2011. Determining the residual alcohol in biodiesel through its flash point. Fuel 90, 905–907. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.10.020

Budi, A., 2017. Proses Pembuatan Biodisel Minyak Jarak Pagar (Jatropha Curcas L.). Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Dias, J.M., Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M., Almeida, M.F., 2008. Comparison of the performance of different homogeneous alkali catalysts during transesterification of waste and virgin oils and evaluation of biodiesel quality. Fuel 87, 3572–3578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2008.06.014

Estrada, F., Gusmao, R., Mudjijati, ., Indraswati, N., 2007. Pengambilan Minyak Kemiri dengan Cara Pengepresan dan Dilanjutkan Ekstrasi Cake Oil. Widya Tek. 6, 121–130. https://doi.org/10.33508/wt.v6i2.1239

Faizal, M., Maftuchah, U., Auriyani, W.A., 2013. Pengaruh Kadar Metanol, Jumlah Katalis, Dan Waktu Reaksi Pada Pembuatan Biodiesel Dari Lemak Sapi Melalui Proses Transesterifikasi. J. Tek. Kim. 19, 29–37.

Firyanto, R., Mulyaningsih, S., Putranti, D.A., 2016. Extraction Kemiri Sunan Seeds Using Leaching Process And Characterization Kemiri Sunan Oil As A Biodiesel. B. Proc. Int. Conf. Urban Herit. Sustain. Infrastruct. Dev. 79–86.

Ghanei, R., Moradi, G.R., Taherpourkalantari, R., Arjmandzadeh, E., 2011. Variation of physical properties during transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel as an approach to predict reaction progress. Fuel Process. Technol. 92, 1593–1598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.04.003

Haryono, Yuliyati, Y.B., Atiek, R.N., Rizal, M., Sarifah, N., 2020. Karakterisasi biodiesel dari minyak kemiri sunan dengan katalis heterogen silika terimpregnasi kalsium oksida (CaO/SiO2 ). J. Penelit. Has. Hutan 38, 11–24.

Hendra, D., 2014. Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Biji Kemiri Sunan. J. Penelit. Has. Hutan 32, 37–45.

Holilah, H., Prasetyoko, D., Oetami, T.P., Santosa, E.B., Zein, Y.M., Bahruji, H., Fansuri, H., Ediati, R., Juwari, J., 2015. The potential of Reutealis trisperma seed as a new non-edible source for biodiesel production. Biomass Convers. Biorefinery 5, 347–353. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-014-0150-6

Kementan, 2011a. Surat Keputusan Menteri Pertanian 4044/Kpts/SR.120/9/2011 tentang pelepasan Kemiri Sunan 1 sebagai varietas unggul. Jakarta.

Kementan, 2011b. Surat Keputusan Menteri Pertanian 4000/Kpts/SR.120/9/2011 tentang pelepasan Kemiri Sunan 2 sebagai varietas unggul. Jakarta.

Kumar, K.R., Channarayappa, Chandrika, K., Prasanna, K.T., Gowda, B., 2014. Biodiesel production and characterization from non-edible oil tree species Aleurites trisperma Blanco. Biomass Conv. Bioref. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-014-0152-4

Lapuerta, M., Rodríguez-Fernández, J., de Mora, E.F., 2009. Correlation for the estimation of the cetane number of biodiesel fuels and implications on the iodine number. Energy Policy 37, 4337–4344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.05.049

Moradi, G.R., Dehghani, S., Ghanei, R., 2012. Measurements of physical properties during transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel for prediction of reaction progress. Energy Convers. Manag. 61, 67–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2012.03.015

Murni, S.W., Kusumawardani, G., Arifin, T., 2016. Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Minyak Kemiri Sunan dengan Proses Dua Tahap. Pros. Semin. Nas. Tek. Kim. “Kejuangan” 1–5.

Muyassaroh, Daryono, E.D., Hudha, M.I., 2012. Biodiesel dari Minyak Jarak Pagar dengan Variasi Penambahan Co-Solvent dan Waktu Reaksi. J. Tek. Kim. 7, 8–11.

Pranata, A.W., 2012. Pembuatan dan Analisis Sifat Fisikokimia Biodiesel Kemiri Sunan (Aleurites trisperma).

Prihanto, A., Irawan, T.A.B., 2018. Pengaruh Temperatur, Konsentrasi Katalis Dan Rasio Molar Metanol-Minyak Terhadap Yield Biodisel Dari Minyak Goreng Bekas Melalui Proses Netralisasi-Transesterifikasi. Metana 13, 30. https://doi.org/10.14710/metana.v13i1.11340

Ritonga, M.Y., Ruben, M., Giovani, R., Kimia, D.T., Teknik, F., Utara, U.S., Almamater, J., 2016. Pembuatan Metil Ester dari Minyak Kemiri Sunan Dengan Keberadaan Co-Solvent Aseton dan Katalis 5.

Silitonga, A.., Mahlia, T.M.., Ongc, H.C., Riayatsyahc, T.M.., Kusumoa, F., Ibrahima, H., Dharmaa, S., Gumilang, D., 2017. A comparative study of biodiesel production methods for Reutealis trisperma biodiesel. Energy Sources, Part A Recover. Util. Environ. Eff. 00, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2017.1399174




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v12n2.2020.78-85

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat & Minyak Industri

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

          


Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat, & Minyak Industri Editorial Office:

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat
Jalan Raya Karangploso Km 4, Malang 65152
Jawa Timur, Indonesia
Telp: +62-341-491447
Fax: +62-341-485121
Email: balittas@litbang.pertanian.go.id
Website: http://balittas.litbang.pertanian.go.id


View My Stats