Ketahanan Delapan Klon Abaka (Musa textilis) Terhadap Fusarium oxysporum F sp. cubesence

Titiek Yulianti, Kristiana Sri Wijayanti, Cece suhara, Untung Setyobudi, Marjani Murtojo

Abstract


Penyakit layu Fusarium pada tanaman Abaka (Musa textilis L.) yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium oxysporum  f sp. cubesence (Foc) merupakan salah satu kendala terhambatnya perkembangan Abaka di Indonesia karena menyebabkan penurunan kualitas serat.  Gejala serangan Foc adalah terbelahnya batang semu bagian luar dan warna daun berubah menjadi kuning pucat sampai kuning kecoklatan kemudian layu.  Indonesia belum memiliki varietas unggul untuk mendukung pengembangan Abaka, meskipun Balittas memiliki koleksi plasma nutfah yang cukup.  Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi ketahanan delapan klon Abaka yang memiliki potensi produksi tinggi terhadap infeksi Foc.  Penelitian dilakukan di rumah kaca Balittas pada tahun 2018.  Sebanyak delapan klon abaka (UB4, Tangongon, Tangongon 70-3-1-1-2, UB-7, Cilacap, UB-8, UB-11, dan UB-5) yang diuji disusun dalam Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan tiga kali ulangan.   Isolat Foc yang digunakan berasal dari tanaman abaka yang menunjukkan gejala layu Fusarium.    Masing-masing klon ditanam dalam polibag berukuran 500 g satu tanaman per polibag. Setiap klon ditanam sebanyak 10 polibag per ulangan.  Benih abaka berumur 3 bulan direndam selama 24 jam dalam suspensi konidia Foc dengan kerapatan105/ml. Pengamatan kejadian penyakit dilakukan setiap 5 hari sekali sampai tanaman berumur 60 hari.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa,  tidak ada klon abaka yang diujikan tahan terhadap Foc melainkan rentan (UB8 dan Tangongon) dengan tingkat kejadian penyakit 43,3% - 46,7% dan sangat rentan (Cilacap, UB4, Tangongon 70-3-1-1-2, UB-7,  UB-11, dan UB-5) dengan tingkat kejadian 56,7% - 96,7%.

 

Resistance of Eight Clones of Abaca (Musa textilistFusarium oxysporum F sp. cubesence

ABSTRACT.

Fusarium wilt on Abaca (Musa textilis L.) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f sp. cubesence (Foc) was one of the obstacles to development of Abaca in Indonesia since it decreased fibre quality. Symptom of Foc infection was splitted of the outer low pseudostem and discoloured of the leaf sheat to pale yellow or brownish yellow and then wilt. Indonesia has not released a superior variety (ies) to support the development of Abaca, although Balittas has enough germplasm collection.  This paper reported the resistance of eight Abaca clones, which have high potential production, to Foc.  The trial activity has been conducted in the screen house of BALITTAS in 2018.  The tested clones were:  UB4, Tangongon, Tangongon 70-3-1-1-2, UB-7, Cilacap, UB-8, UB-11, and UB-5 which was arraned in randomized block design with three replicates. Foc was isolated diseased abaca with wilt and yellow leaf symptom. Each clone was grown in sterilised soil in a 500 g polybag, with 10 three months old plants for each replicate.  The plants were soaked in conidial suspension (105/ml) for 24 hours.  Disease incidence was observed every five days for 60 days.  Result of the test showed, none of the clones was resistant to Foc but susceptible (UB8 and Tangongon) with disease incidence rates of 43.3% - 46.7% and very susceptible (Cilacap, UB4, Tangongon 70-3-1-1 -2, UB-7, UB-11, and UB-5) with an incidence rate of 56.7% - 96.7%, respectively.


Keywords


Abaka; ketahanan; layu; resistance; wilt; Fusarium oxysporum f sp. cubesence

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v11n1.2019.1-7

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