Teknik Pematahan Dormansi Dua Aksesi Benih Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) untuk Meningkatkan Daya Berkecambah Benih

Taufiq Hidayat RS, Marjani Marjani

Abstract


Kenaf termasuk tanaman semusim yang memiliki struktur benih yang relatif keras dan sangat berpengaruh terhadap viabilitas benih. Viabilitas benih dapat dihambat oleh adanya kemampuan benih untuk menunda perkecambahan, yaitu mempunyai sifat dormansi. Beberapa teknik pematahan dormansi dapat dilakukan untuk membantu perkecambahan benih yang disebabkan oleh kondisi fisik maupun fisiologis benih . Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk menguji pengaruh antara teknik pematahan dormansi pada dua aksesi benih terhadap peningkatan daya berkecambah benih kenaf. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Maret sampai Mei 2017. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok lengkap faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah aksesi benih yang terdiri dari dua aksesi yaitu ACC 322 dan ACC 1301, sedangkan faktor kedua adalah teknik pematahan dormansi yang terdiri atas 10 perlakuan yaitu perendaman air suhu 90ºC selama 3 menit, perendaman air suhu 90ºC selama 5 menit, perendaman air suhu 27ºC selama 12 jam, perendaman air suhu 27ºC selama 16 jam, pemotongan pada salah satu sisi benih, pemanasan benih dalam oven 80ºC selama 10 menit, pemanasan benih dalam oven 80ºC selama 20 menit, perendaman 98% H2SO4 selama 10 menit, perendaman 98% H2SO4 selama 15 menit dan kontrol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan pemotongan pada salah satu sisi benih dapat meningkatkan persentase daya berkecambah hingga >90% dan merupakan teknik pematahan dormansi yang mampu meningkatkan daya berkecambah pada dua aksesi benih kenaf.

 

Techniques of  Dormancy Breaking in Two Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Accessions to Increase Seed Germination

 ABSTRACT

Kenaf is a seasonal plant that has a relatively hard seed structure and greatly affects the viability of the seed. The viability of seeds can be inhibited by the ability of seeds to delay germination, which has dormancy character. Some dormancy breaking techniques can be done to help seed germination caused by physical and physiological conditions of the seed. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of dormancy breaking techniques on some seed accessions on increasing the germination of kenaf seeds. This study was conducted from March to May 2017. This research method used a factorial completely randomized block design. The first factor was the accession of seeds consisting of two accessions ie ACC 322 and ACC 1301, while the second factor was dormancy breaking technique consisting of 10 treatments ie soaking in 90ºC water for 3 minutes, in 90ºC water for 5 minutes, soaking in 27ºC water  for 12 hours, soaking in water 27ºC for 16 hours, seed cutting, seed heating in oven 80ºC for 10 minutes, seed heating in oven 80ºC for 20 minutes, soaking in 98% H2SO4 for 10 minutes, soaking in 98% H2SO4 for 15 minutes and control. The results showed that the cutting treatment on one side of the seed can increase the percentage of germination power up to >90% and is a dormancy breaking technique that can increase germination on two accessions of kenaf seeds.

 


Keywords


Kenaf; serat; dormansi; perkecambahan; viabilitas; dormancy, germination, cutting seed

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v10n2.2018.72-81

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