Strategi Pengelolaan Serangga Hama dan Penyakit Tebu dalam Menghadapi Perubahan Iklim

Nurindah Nurindah, Titiek Yulianti

Abstract


Fenomena perubahan iklim terjadi karena aktivitas manusia dalam mengelola lingkungan, diantaranya adalah deforestasi, emisi gas dari kegiatan industri, dan pembakaran biomassa. Komponen iklim yang berubah, yaitu peningkatan suhu udara, konsentrasi CO2 dalam atmosfer, dan hujan berpengaruh terhadap tanaman tebu, serangga serta mikro organisme yang berasosiasi dengan tanaman tebu. Perubahan iklim lebih banyak menyebabkan pengaruh negatif terhadap tanaman tebu dan interaksi trofik antara tanaman tebu, serangga herbivora dan mikro organisme penyebab penyakit tanaman dan musuh alami herbivora maupun antagonis mikro organisme. Peningkatan suhu udara menyebabkan perubahan fisiologis pada tanaman tebu yang berakibat meningkatnya infestasi serangga herbivora dan infeksi patogen penyebab penyakit tanaman. Peningkatan komposisi CO2 dalam atmosfer menurunkan sistem ketahanan tanaman terhadap herbivora, sehingga dapat memicu terjadinya out break; dan berpengaruh positif, negatif, maupun tidak berpengaruh terhadap perkembangan penyakit tanaman. Perubahan iklim mengharuskan sistem pengelolaan serangga hama dan penyakit tanaman tebu untuk menerapkan aksi mitigasi maupun adaptasi perubahan iklim untuk memperoleh produksi tebu yang optimal dan sistem budidaya tebu yang berkelanjutan. Dalam tinjauan ini dibahas pengaruh perubahan iklim terhadap perkembangan serangga hama dan patogen penyebab penyakit pada tanaman tebu, serta strategi pengelolaannya.

Management Strategy for Sugarcane Pests to Anticipate the Climate Change

Climate change phenomenon occurs due to human activities in managing the environment, such as deforestation, gas emissions from industrial activities, and biomass burning. The changing of climate components, ie, rising air temperatures, CO2 concentration in atmosphere, and precipitation have an effect on sugarcane, as well as on insects and micro-organisms associated with sugarcane. Climate change causes negative effects on sugar cane and trophic interactions between sugarcane crops, herbivorous insects and plant-causing micro-organisms and natural enemies of herbivores as well as micro-organism antagonists. Increased temperatures lead to physiological changes in sugarcane resulting in increased insect infestation of herbivores and pathogenic infections o the plant. Increased CO2 composition in atmosphere decreases the plant resistance system to herbivores, thus triggering an outbreak; and may have a positive, negative, or no effect on the development of the diseases. Climate change requires pest and sugarcane pest control systems to implement climate change mitigation and adaptation actions to obtain optimal cane production and sustainable sugarcane cultivation systems. In this review, we discussed the effects of climate change on the development of insect pests and pathogen causes of disease in sugarcane crops, and the strategy to manage them.



Keywords


penggerek tebu; luka api; tebu; perubahan iklim;climate change; sugarcane borer; sugarcane smut

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