Teknik Pematahan Dormansi untuk Meningkatkan Daya Berkecambah Dua Aksesi Benih Yute (Corchorus olitorius L.)

Taufiq Hidayat RS, Marjani Marjani

Abstract


Tanaman yute di Indonesia memiliki prospek dan peluang yang baik untuk dijadikan bahan baku industri karung goni, pulp dan kertas. Benih yute masih memiliki perkecambahan yang rendah karena secara morfologi memiliki kulit biji yang keras dan masa dormansi yang panjang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi mengenai teknik pematahan dormansi benih untuk meningkatkan daya berkecambah benih yute. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial. Faktor pertama terdiri atas aksesi benih yute (2005 dan 2006), faktor kedua terdiri atas media perkecambahan (kertas merang dan pasir), dan faktor ketiga terdiri atas perlakuan perendaman benih (tanpa perendaman, perendaman air suhu 80oC selama 1 jam, perendaman air suhu 80oC selama 2 jam, perendaman air suhu 80oC selama 3 jam, perendaman air suhu 27oC selama 12 jam, perendaman air suhu 27oC selama 20 jam dan perendaman air suhu 27oC selama 25 jam). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa interaksi antara aksesi benih, media perkecambahan dan perlakuan benih memberikan pengaruh yang nyata terhadap persentase daya berkecambah, persentase benih keras dan panjang akar. Benih yute 2006 yang direndam air suhu 80ºC sampai dingin selama 3 jam dan dikecambahkan pada media kertas merang memiliki persentase keserempakan tumbuh terbaik (90,5%), daya berkecambah (90,1%), benih keras terendah (8,75%), tinggi plumula (3,88 cm) dan panjang radikula terbaik (3.89 cm). Persentase keserempakan tumbuh, daya berkecambah, persentase benih keras dan tinggi plumula tidak berbeda nyata antara dua aksesi benih yute. Perendaman benih dengan air suhu 80ºC sampai dingin selama 3 jam dan dikecambahkan pada media kertas merang mampu mematahkan dormansi dan meningkatkan daya berkecambah dua aksesi benih yute.


The Techniques of Dormancy Breaking to Increase Seed Viability of Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.)

Jute plants in Indonesia have prospects and opportunities to be used as raw materials for pulp and paper sack industries. Jute seeds have a low germination because they have hard seed shells and long dormancy periods. This study aims to determine the dormancy seed breaking technique to increase the germination level of jute seeds. The research method used a factorial completely randomized design. The first factor consisted of jute seed harvest in 2006 and 2005, the second factor consisted of germination media (paper and sand), and the third factor consisted of the treatment of seeds soaking (without soaking, soaking in 80oC water for 1 hour, in 80oC water for 2 hours, in 80oC water for 3 hours, in 27oC water for 12 hours, in 27oC water for 20 hours and in 27oC water for 25 hours). The results showed that the interaction between three factors gave a significant effect on the percentage of germination, percentage of hard seed and root length. The jute seed harvest in 2006 were soaked in 80ºC water for 3 hours and were germinated on paper media showed the best simultaneous growth percentage (90%), germination (90%), lowest hard seed (9%), plumula length (3.88 cm) and the longest radical length (3.89 cm). Those parameters were not significantly different between the two jute accessions.  Soaking the seeds in 80oC water for 3 hours and then germinate the seeds on paper could break the seed dormancy and increase the germination.


Keywords


Corchorus olitorius, yute, dormansi, daya berkecambah, perlakuan air panas, media perkecambahan, dormancy, germination, hot water treatment, germination media

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v9n2.2017.73-81

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