Potensi Diversifikasi Rosela Herbal (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) untuk Pangan dan Kesehatan; Potential Divercification of Herbs Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) for Food and Health

Elda Nurnasari, Ahmad Dhiaul Khuluq

Abstract


Tanaman penghasil serat alami dari genus Hibiscus yang cukup populer di Indonesia adalah rosela (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Nilai kemanfaatan rosela sangat luas baik untuk pangan dan kesehatan, sehingga potensi diversifikasi rosela cukup besar.  Tujuan penulisan review ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi kandungan fitokimia potensial tanaman rosela herbal yang memiliki efek farmakologis dan fisiologis serta beberapa diversifikasi produk makanan, minuman dan produk kesehatan. Bagian tanaman rosela herbal yang memiliki kandungan fitokimia potensial adalah daun, buah, biji, batang dan akar. Senyawa fitokimia potensial tersebut meliputi kelompok senyawa fenol, alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, dan asam organik. Fungsi rosela herbal secara farmakologis dan fisiologis diantaranya memiliki aktivitas antibakteri, antifungal, aktivitas antiinflamasi, antidiabetes, aktivitas antioksidan, dan aktivitas antihipertensi. Diversifikasi produk rosela herbal meliputi nanokapsul ekstrak rosela, pewarna alami, pangan fungsional, obat herbal, feed additive, bahan kosmetik, minyak goreng, cat, dan bahan bakar nabati. Inovasi teknologi proses produksi dalam diversifikasi produk rosela perlu terus dilakukan untuk meningkatkan nilai tambah dan optimalisasi pemanfaatan komponen bioaktif rosela herbal. Dengan demikian diharapkan dapat meningkatkan kesejahteraan petani dan produksi rosela herbal nasional.

 

Potential Divercification of Herbs Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) for Food and Health

Plants of the genus Hibiscus that produce natural fibers are roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). The benefit value of roselle is very wide for food and health, so the potential of roselle product diversification is quite large. The purpose of this review provides information on potential phytochemical content of herbs roselle plants that have pharmacological and physiological effects as well as some product diversification for food, drink, and health product. The plant part of herbs roselle that has potential phytochemical content is leaves, fruit, seed stem and root. These potential phytochemical compounds include groups compounds of phenol, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and organic acids. The functions of herbs roselle for pharmacological and physiological include antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory activity, antidiabetic activity, antioxidant activity, and antihypertensive activity. Products diversification of herbs roselle includes nanocapsul of roselle extract, natural dyes, functional foods, herbal medicines, feed additives, cosmetic ingredients, cooking oil, paints, and biofuels. The innovation technological of production process in the roselle product diversification needs to be continuously done to increase the added value and optimization of bioactive herb component utilization. Therefore it is expected to improve the welfare of farmers and national production of herbs roselle.




Keywords


Rosela, fitokimia potensial, diversifikasi, farmakologis, roselle, potential phytochemicals, diversification, pharmacological

Full Text:

PDF (Indonesian)

References


Abdallah, EM 2015, Antibacterial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces against hospital isolates of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Journal of Acute Disease, 5(6):512–516.

Afolabi, OC, Ogunsola, FT, Coker, AO 2008, Susceptibility of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans to extracts of Garcinia kola, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Solanum americanum, The West African Journal of Medicine, 27(4):230–233.

Alshami, I &Alharbi, AE 2014, Antibacterial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) extract in synergism with voriconazole and fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates: An in vitro study, Biomedical Research, 25(3):401–404.

Anonymous 2009, Khasiat bunga rosela yang luar biasa, diakses pada 31 Januari 2017(http://sukatani-banguntani.blogspot.co.id/).

Anonymous 2017, Artikel rosela,diakses pada 31 Januari 2017(http://tehroselahilwa.word-press.com).

Astawan, M 2011,Pangan fungsional untuk kesehatan yang optimal, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian IPB, Bogor.

Badan POM RI 2010, Serial data terkini tumbuhan obat, rosela (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan, Jakarta.

Chang, HC, Peng, CH, Yeh, DM, Kao, ES& WangCJ 2014,Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans,Food Function, 5(4):734–739.

Christian, KR, Nair, MG& Jackson, JC 2006, Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa),Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19(8):778–783.

Coniwanti, P, Novela R, Azimah, F 2010, Proses ekstraksi minyak biji rosela,Jurnal Teknik Kimia, 17(2):1–8.

Da-Costa-Rocha, I, Bonnlaender, B, Sievers, H, PischelI&Heinrich, M 2014,Hibiscus sabdariffa L., A phytochemical and pharma-cological review,Food Chemistry, 165:424–443.

Dianasari, D& Fajrin, FA 2015, Uji aktivitas antidiabetes ekstrak air kelopak bunga rosela (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) pada tikus dengan metode induksi aloksan, Jurnal Farmasi Sains dan Terapan, 2(1):54–58.

El-Adawy, TA& Khalil, AH 1994, Characteristic of roselle seeds as a new source of protein and lipid,J Agril Food Chem, 42:1896–1900.

Essa, MM, Subramanian, P 2007, Hibiscus sabdariffa affects ammonium chloride-induced hyperam-monemic rats,Evidence Based Complementary and .Alternatif. Medicine, 4:321–325.

Galvano 2007, Bioavailability, antioxidant, and biological properties of the natural free-radical scavengers cyanidin and related glycosides, Ann 1st Super Santa, 43(4):382–393.

Goussous, SJ, Abu El-Samen, FM& Tahhan, R 2010, Antifungal activity of several medicinal plant extracts agains the early blight pathogen (Alternaria solani), Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 43(17):1745–1757.

Gruenwald, J, BrendlerT& Jaenicke, C 2004,PDR for Herbal Medicines,Third Edition. Medical Economics Company, New Jersey, 435p.

Hainida, E, Amin, I, Normah,H& Mohd-Esa, N 2008, Nutritional and amino acidcontents of differently treated Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds,Food Chemistry 111:906–911.

Handewi, PSR, Purwantini, TB& Marisa, Y 2006, Prospek diversifikasi usaha rumah tangga dalam mendukung ketahanan pangan dan penanggulangan kemiskinan,Forum Penelitian Agro Ekonomi, 24(1):1–13.

Hastuti, ND 2012,Pembuatan minuman fungsional dari madu dan ekstrak rosela,Jurnal teknologi pangan, 3(1):29–63.

Im, HW, Suh, BS, Lee, SU, Kozukue , N,MayumiOK,Caro, lEL& Friedman, M 2008, Analysis of phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromato-graphy/mass spectrometry in potato plant flowers, leaves, stems and tubers and in home-processed potatoes,Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry,56:3341–3349.

Islam, AKMA, Jamini, TS, Islam, AKMM& Yeasmin, S 2016, Roselle: A functional food with high nutritional and medicinal values,Fundamental and Applied Agriculture, 1(2):44–49.

Kao, ES, Hsu, JD, Wang, CJ, Yang, SH, Cheng, SY, Lee, HJ 2009, Polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. inhibited lipopoly-saccharideinduced inflammation by improving antioxidative conditions and regulating cyclooxygenase-2 expression,Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 73(2):385–390.

Kowalczyk, E, Krzesinski, P, Kura, M, Szmigiel, B &Blaszcyk, J 2003, Anthocyanins in Medicine, Polish Journal of Pharmacology, 55:699–702.

Kristiana, L & Herti, M 2008,Khasiat dan manfaat rosela, PT. AgroMedia Pustaka, Jakarta,hlm. 3–7, dan 25–30.

Kusumastuti, IR 2014, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.) effects on lowering blood pressure as atreatment for hypertension,Journal Majority, 3(7):70–74.

Lin, HH, Chen, JH, Kuo, WH & Wang, CJ 2007, Chemopreventive properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on human gastric carcinoma cells through apoptosis induction and JNK/p38 MAPK signaling activation,Chemico-Biological Interactions, 165(1):59–75.

Mahadevan, N, Shivali, P&Kamboj 2009, Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn., An overview, Natural Product Radiance, 8(1):77–83.

Mardiah, FR, Zakaria, Prangdimurti E& Damanik, R 2015, Perubahan kandungan kimia sari rosela merah dan ungu hasil pengeringan menggunakan cabinet dryer dan fluidized bed drayer,Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian. 25(1):1–7.

Mardiah, FR, Zakaria, Prangdimurtia, E&Damanik, R 2015, Anti-inflammatory of purple roselle extract in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin, The first international symposium on food and agro-biodiversity (ISFA2014), Procedia Food Science, 3:182– 189.

Mohd-Esa, N, Hern, FS,Ismail,A, Yee, CL 2010, Antioxidant activity in different parts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extracts and potential exploitation of the seeds,Food Chemistry, 122:1055–1060.

Mounnissamy, VM, Kavimani,S&Gunasegaran, R 2001, Antibacterial activity of gossypetin isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa,The Antiseptic, 99:81–82.

Mungole, A&Chaturvedi, A 2011, Hibiscus sabdariffa L., A rich source of secondary metabolites,International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 6(1):83–87.

Murianingrum, M 2013, Pelepasan varietas baru rosela minuman (Hibiscus sabdariffa Var. Sabdariffa). diakses pada 27 Januari 2017 (http://www.balittas.litbang.pertanian.go.id)

Olaleye, MT 2007, Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa,J. Med Plants Res, 1(1):009–013.

Pakpahan, A 1989 , Refleksi diversifikasi dalam teori ekonomi. Makalah disampaikan pada Kongres dan Konpernas IX Perhepi. Jakarta, 12-16 Januari 1989. PERHEPI, Jakarta..

Pangat, Y 2014, Prarencana pabrik zat warna alami dari bunga rosela kapasitas 40.049 kg/tahun, Skripsi, Fakultas Teknik Universitas Katolik Widya Mandala, Surabaya.

Purbowati, ISM, Samsu, K, Warsiki, E& Rukmini, HS 2015, Evaluasi toksisitas, aktivitas antibakteri dan antioksidan komponen bioaktif rosela dengan variasi jenis pelarut,Jurnal Teknologi Industri Pertanian, 25(2):182–189.

Purbowati, SM. Syamsu, K,Warsiki, E&Sri,H2016, Stabilitas senyawa fenolik dalam ekstrak dan nanokapsul kelopak bunga rosela pada berbagai variasi pH, suhu dan waktu,Agrointek, 10(1):31–40.

Putri, DD, Nurmagustina, DE&Chamdra, AA, 2014,Kandungan total fenol dan aktivitas antibakteri kelopak buah rosela merah dan ungu sebagai kandidat feed additive alami pada broiler, Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Terapan14(3):174–180.

Sarah 2015, Recipe:refined sugar free rosela jam,diakses tanggal 6 Pebruari 2017 (http://www.saylittlehen.com/2015/12/recipe-refined-sugar-free-rosela-jam.html)

Sembiring, A, Tanjung, M& Sabri, E 2013, Pengaruh ekstrak segar daun rosela (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) terhadap jumlah eritrosit dan kadar hemoglobin mencit jantan (Mus musculus L.) anemia strain DDW melalui induksi natrium nitrit (NaNO2), Saintia Biologi, 1(2):60–65.

Setyo-Budi, U,2009 , Biologi tanaman kenaf,Monograf Kenaf, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Tembakau dan Serat, Malang, hlm 1-12.

Suter, IK 2013, Pangan fungsional dan prospek pengembangannya,Prosiding Seminar Sehari ”Pentingnya Makanan Alamiah (Natural Food) Untuk Kesehatan Jangka Panjang, Jurusan Gizi Politeknik Kesehatan, Denpasar, tanggal 18 Agustus 2013.

Tsai, PJ, McIntoshb, J, Pearceb, P, Camdenb, B& Jordanc, BR 2002, Anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract,Food Res Int’l, 35:351–356.

Wang, J, Cao, X, Jiang, H, Qi, Y, Chin, KL& Yue, Y 2014, Antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from different Hibiscus sabdariffaaccessions and simultaneous determination five major antioxidant compounds by LC-Q-TOF-MS. Molecules. 19:21.226–21.238.

Winarti, S 2006, Minuman kesehatan, Trubus Agri Sarana, Surabaya, hlm 21-23.

Yin, MC& Chao, CY 2008, Anti-Campylobacter, anti-aerobic, and anti-oxidative effects of roselle calyx extract and protocatechuic acid in ground beef, International Journal of Food Microbiology, 127(1–2):73–77.

Zhen, J, Villani, TS, Guo, Y, Qi, Y, Chin, K, Hsiung Pan, M, Ho, CT, Simon, JE& Wu, Q 2016, Phytochemistry, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and anti-inflammatory activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves, Food Chemistry, 190:673–680.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v9n2.2017.82-92

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat & Minyak Industri

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

          


Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat, & Minyak Industri Editorial Office:

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat
Jalan Raya Karangploso Km 4, Malang 65152
Jawa Timur, Indonesia
Telp: +62-341-491447
Fax: +62-341-485121
Email: balittas@litbang.pertanian.go.id
Website: http://balittas.litbang.pertanian.go.id


View My Stats