Pengaruh Komposisi Media Terhadap Induksi Tunas dan Akar Lima Genotipe Tanaman Agave Pada Kultur In Vitro

Aprilia Ridhawati, Tantri Dyah Ayu Anggraeni, Rully Dyah Purwati

Abstract


Agave (Agave sisalana Perrine) merupakan tanaman penghasil serat alam. Pengembangan agave terkendala penyediaan bahan tanam bermutu. Teknik kultur jaringan dapat menghasilkan benih agave dalam jumlah banyak dengan kualitas yang seragam. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mendapatkan komposisi media terbaik dalam induksi tunas dan akar lima genotipe agave pada kultur in vitro. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Balittas dari bulan Juli 2015 sampai Juni 2016. Sumber eksplan adalah tunas aseptik agave genotipe Balittas 10, Balittas 12, Balittas 13, Balittas 14, dan H-11648 dari kultur in vitro. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial (dua faktor, tiga ulangan). Faktor I adalah komposisi media dan faktor II adalah genotipe. Komposisi media induksi tunas: M1 (MS + BAP 0,5 mg/l + IBA 0,5 mg/l); M2 (MS + BAP 1 mg/l + IBA 0,5 mg/l), dan M3 (MS + BAP 1,5 mg/l + IBA 0,5 mg/l). Komposisi media perakaran: M1 (MS + arang aktif 2 g/l); M2 (MS + arang aktif 2 g/l + IBA 0,5 mg/l); M3 (MS + arang aktif 2 g/l + IBA 1 g/l); M4 (MS + arang aktif 2 g/l + NAA 0,5 mg/l), dan M5 (MS + arang aktif 2 g/l + NAA 1 mg/l). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan komposisi media induksi tunas menghasilkan jumlah tunas (1,09–1,33) dan kecepatan induksi (4 minngu) yang tidak berbeda nyata. Komposisi media induksi akar yang terbaik adalah media M4 (MS + arang aktif 2 g/l + NAA 0,5 mg/l) dengan jumlah akar 4,53. Genotipe Balittas 14 menghasilkan jumlah tunas dan jumlah akar yang paling tinggi dibandingkan genotipe lain (1,56 tunas dan 4,59 akar).

 

The Effect of Media Composition on The Induction of Shoot and Roots and of Five Agave Clones on In Vitro Culture

Agave (Agave sisalana Perrine) is a plant that producenaturalfibre. Agave cultivation for commercial use is still limited by the availability of good plant materials. In vitro culture technique can produce  a large amount of plant material with same quality in relatively short time. The study aimed to obtain a suitable medium composition for in vitro shoot multiplication and root induction for five agave genotypes. The experiment was conducted from July 2015 to June 2016 in Tissue Culture Laboratory of Indonesian Sweetener and Fibre Crops Research Institute. Explant source derived from aseptic shoot of agave genotypesBalittas 10, 12, 13, 14, andH-11648 in in vitro ISFCRI germplasm collection. The experiment was arranged in factorial complete random design (two factors: media composition, genotype, and  three replication). Shoot induction media: M1 (MS + BAP 0.5 mg/l + IBA 0.5 mg/l); M2 (MS + BAP 1 mg/l + IBA 0.5 mg/l);and M3 (MS + BAP 1.5 mg/l + IBA 0.5 mg/l). Root induction media: M1 (MS + active carbon(AC) 2 g/l); M2 (MS + AC2 g/l + IBA 0,5 mg/l); M3 (MS + AC 2 g/l + IBA 1 g/l); M4 (MS + AC 2 g/l + NAA 0,5 mg/l);and M5 (MS + AC 2 g/l + NAA 1 mg/l). The results showed that the shoot induction media compositions were not differ significantly on shoot numbers (1.09–1.33) and time for shoot induction (4 weeks). The best composition medium of root induction was M4 (MS + AC 2 g/l + NAA 0.5 mg/l), that yielded 4.53 root numbers. Balittas 14 genotype yielded the highest shoot and root numbers (1,56 shoot numbers and 4.59 root numbers).


Keywords


Agave; kultur in vitro; kultur jaringan; komposisi media; in vitro culture; tissue culture; media composition

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v9n1.2017.1-9

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