Keragaan Karakter Morfologi, Stomata, dan Klorofil Enam Varietas Tembakau Lokal Tulungagung

Fatkhur Rochman, Ruly Hamida

Abstract


Tembakau lokal tulungagung merupakan salah satu jenis tembakau yang  memiliki peran penting dalam industri rokok kretek di Indonesia. Beberapa varietas tembakau telah banyak dibudidayakan di wilayah Kabupaten Tulungagung, tetapi tingkat heterogenitas tanaman cukup tinggi, baik secara morfologi maupun anatomi. Stomata merupakan salah satu bagian struktur daun yang sering digunakan dalam klasifikasi taksonomi sehingga informasi keragaman sifat morfologi, stomata dan kadar klorofil dapat dimanfaatkan pemulia tanaman untuk melakukan perakitan varietas baru dengan produktivitas sesuai dengan kebutuhan konsumen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari keragaan sifat morfologi, stomata, dan kadar klorofil serta produktivitas tanaman. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Desa Kendalbulur, Kecamatan Boyolangu, Kabupaten Tulungagung, pada bulan April sampai Oktober 2015.  Bahan penelitian terdiri atas 6 varietas tembakau yang sudah lama berkembang di Tulungagung, yaitu varietas Rejeb Arang, Rejeb Kerep, Gagang Sidi, Gagang Jembrak, Gagang Ijo, dan Rejeb Jae. Tiap-tiap varietas ditanam pada petak berukuran 12 m x 4,50 m dengan jarak tanam 60 cm x 90 cm (100 tanaman/petak).  Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan tiga ulangan.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 6 varietas tembakau yang diteliti mempunyai bentuk morfologi yang beragam. Varietas Rejeb arang memiliki nilai tertinggi pada karakter tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, dan pajang daun, sehingga dapat menunjang produktivitas tanaman.  Tipe stomata Rejeb Arang adalah Amphibraci-parasitik, Rejeb Kereb dan Gagang Jae Diasitik, Gagang Sidi dan Gagang Ijo bertipe Anisositik sedangkan Gagang Jembrak bertipe Laerositik.  Kerapatan stomata tertinggi pada Gagang Jae (44,87/mm2) dan kadar klorofil tertinggi pada varietas Rejeb Arang (34,85 unit).

Performance of Morphological, Stomata, and Chlorophyll Characters of Six Tulungagung Local Tobacco Variety 

Tulungagung tobacco is one type of tobacco that has an important role in the cigarette industry in Indonesia. Some varieties of tobacco have been cultivated in Tulungagung, but the heterogeneity degree of the plant is quite high, so that the information of diversity of morphology, stomata and chlorophyll can be utilized to carry out the assembly of new varieties with productivity in accordance to customer needs. The aim of research is study  the morphological properties, stomata, chlorophyll content, and crop productivity. This research was conducted in the village of Kendalbulur, District Boyolangu, Tulungagung, from April to October 2015. The research material consisted of six varieties of tobacco has long been developing in Tulungagung, ie Rejeb Arang, Rejeb Kerep, Gagang Sidi, Gagang Jembrak, Gagang Ijo, and Rejeb Jae. Each variety was grown on plots sized 12 m x 4.50 m with plant spacing of 60 cm x 90 cm (100 plants/plot). This study used a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that six varieties of tobacco studied have varying morphology. Varieties Rejeb charcoal has the highest value on plant height, leaf number, and leaf length, so that could support the productivity of the plant. Stomata type of Rejeb Arang is Amphibraci-parasitic, Rejeb Kereb and Rejeb Jae are Diasitic, Gagang Sidi and Gadang Ijo are Anisositic; Gagang Jembrak is Laerositik. The highest chlorophyll content was in Rejeb Arang varieties (34.85 units).


Keywords


Tembakau lokal; Tulungagung; Morfologi; Stomata; Klorofil, Local tobacco; Morphology; Clorophyll

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anonim 2013, Laporan luas areal dan produksi/ produktivitas perkebunan rakyat, Dinas Perkebunan Provinsi Jawa Timur, Surabaya, hlm. 50.

Anonim 2015, Kebutuhan tembakau nasional tahun 2015, Laporan tahunan Kementrian Perin-dustrian, Jakarta, hlm. 22.

Briones, AM & Obien, SK 1986, A crop value index for tobacco, J. Tob. Sci. and Tech, 1:1–14.

Campbell, NA, Reece, JB & Mitchell, LG 2003, Biologi, Jilid 2, Edisi Kelima, Alih Bahasa: Wasmen, Penerbit Erlangga, Jakarta, 338–345.

Djumali dan Nurnasari, E 2012, Tanggapan fisiologi tanaman tembakau temanggung terhadap dosis pupuk nitrogen serta kaitannya dengan hasil dan mutu rajangan. Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat & Minyak Industri, 4(1):10–20.

Fitriani, V, Haryanti, S & Darmanti, S 2006. Hubungan antara jarak tanam dari kawah Sikidang Dieng dengan ukuran sel penutup dan jumlah stomata daun tanaman kentang (Solanum tuberosum L.), Buletin Anatomi dan Fisologi, Vol. XIV(2):47–55.

Gardner, FP, Perace, RB & Mitchell, RL 1991, Fisiologi tanaman budidaya, Penerjemah: Susilo, H, UI Press, Jakarta, hlm 3-159.

Gomez, KA & Gomez, AA 1995, Prosedur statistik untuk penelitian pertanian, Edisi kedua, (Di-terjemahkan oleh Endang Sjamsuddin & Yustika S. Baharsjah), Universitas Indonesia Press, Jakarta, 220 hlm.

Haryati, S 2010, Jumlah dan distribusi stomata pada daun beberapa spesies tanaman dikotil dan monokotil, Buletin Agronomi dan Fisiologi, XVIII(2):21–28.

Hynninen, PH & Leppakases, TS 2002, The fungtions of chlorophylls in photosynthesis, Physiology and Maintenance, EOLSS, V:222-258.

Jaleel, CA, Manivannan, P, Wahid, A, Farooq, M, Al-Juburi, HJ, Somasundaram, R & Pan-neerselvam, R 2009, Drought Stress in Plants: A review on morphological characteristics and pigments composition, International Journal of Agriculture & Biology, 11(1):100–105.

Kozlowski, TTPJ, Kramer, SG & Palardy 1991, The physyiologhycal ecology of wody plants, Academic Press Inc, London, pp.31-68.

Li, R, Guo, P, Baum, M, Grando, S & Ceccarelli, S 2006, Evaluation of chlorophyll content and fluorecence parameters as indicators of drought tolerance in Barley, Agricultural Sciences in China, 5(10):751–757.

Long, SP, Zhu, XG, Naidu, SL & Ort, DR 2006, Can improvement in photosynthesis increase crop yields?, Plant, Cell and Environment, 29:315–330, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2005.01493.x

Malone, SR, Mayeux, HS, Johnson, HB & Polley, HW 1993, Stomatal density and aperture Length in four plant species grown across a subambient CO2 gradient, American Journal of Botany, 80:1413–1418.

Nurnasari, E & Djumali 2010, Pengaruh kondisi ketinggian tempat terhadap produksi dan mutu tembakau temanggung, Buletin Tanam-an Tembakau, Serat dan Minyak Industri, 2(2):45–59.

Orcen, N, Nazarian, G, and Gharibkhani, M 2013, The responses of stomatal parameters and SPAD value in Asian tobacco exposed to chromium, Pol. J. Environ. Stud, 22(5):1441–1447.

Pakpahan, GT, 2009, Evaluasi karakter agronomi beberapa varietas tanaman kedelai (Glycine max L.), Skripsi, Universitas Sumatra Utara, Medan, 46 hlm.

Pavhepsky, LB, Acock, B, Hoffman-Benning, S, Willmitzer, L & Fisahn, J 1997. Estimation of the anatomical, stomatal and biochemical components of differences in photosynthesis and transpiration of wild-type and transgenic (expressing yeast-derived invertase targeted to the vacuole) tobacco leaves, Plant, Cell and Environment, 20:1070–1078

Prabhakar, M 2004, Structure, delimitation, nomenclature and classification of stomata, Acta Botanica Sinica, 46(2):242–252.

Rouhi V, Samson R, Lemeur R, Van Damme P 2007. photosynthetic gas exchange characteristics in three different almond species during drought stress and subsequent recovery. Environ Exp Bot, 59: 117-129.

Salisbury, FB & Ross CW 1995, Fisiologi Tumbuhan, Ed. IV Lukman DR & Sumaryono, penerjemah, Penerbit ITB, Bandung, hlm 71-83.

Santhan, P 2014, Leaf structural characteristics of important medicinal plants, Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm, 5(6):673-679, doi: 10.7897/ 2277-4343.056137

Suwarso, Rochman, F, Rachman, A & Herwati, A 1996, Varietas unggul tembakau hasil penelitian BALITTAS, diakses pada 10 November 2015, (www.pustaka.litbang. deptan.go.id).

Suyanto, A & Tirtosastro, S 2006, Permasalahan tembakau rakyat dan dampaknya terhadap industri rokok, Prosiding Diskusi Panel Revita-lisasi Sistem Agribisnis Tembakau Bahan Baku Rokok, Puslitbang Perkebunan, Bogor, hlm. 1–8.

Tso, TC 1999, Seed to smoke, in Tobacco: Pro-duction, chemistry, and technology, DL David & MT Nielsen (Eds.), Blackwell Science, Oxford, p. 1–31.

Umberto, Q 2000, Plant names: Common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology, vol. 1, CRC Pres LLC, USA, 522p.

Zarinkamar, F 2007, Stomatal Observations in Dicotyledons, Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10 (2):199 –219.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v9n1.2017.15-22

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments




Copyright (c) 2017 Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat & Minyak Industri

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


 

          


Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat, & Minyak Industri Editorial Office:

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat
Jalan Raya Karangploso Km 4, Malang 65152
Jawa Timur, Indonesia
Telp: +62-341-491447
Fax: +62-341-485121
Email: balittas@litbang.pertanian.go.id
Website: http://balittas.litbang.pertanian.go.id


View My Stats