Potensi Sumber Daya Iklim di Kabupaten Bone untuk Pengembangan Tanaman Tebu

Prima Diarini Riajaya, Fitriningdyah Tri Kadarwati, . Djumali

Abstract


Salah satu wilayah pengembangan tanaman tebu lahan kering di Sulawesi Selatan terdapat di Kabupaten Bone dengan dua pabrik gula (PG) yaitu PG Bone dan PG Camming. Produktivitas tebu dan rendemen sangat berfluktuasi dan dipengaruhi oleh faktor iklim selain pengelolaan on farm. Dengan demikian potensi sumber daya iklim yang berpengaruh terhadap produktivitas tebu dan rendemen perlu diketahui. Analisis data iklim di Kabupaten Bone dilaksanakan mulai bulan Juni 2012 sampai Desember 2013. Data yang diperlukan terdiri atas curah hujan, suhu maksimum, suhu minimum, kelembapan, lama penyinaran, dan kecepatan angin yang terkumpul dari Dinas PU Pengairan Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan, PG Camming, dan PG Bone. Data produktivitas tebu dan rendemen diperoleh dari PG Camming dan PG Bone. Awal dan akhir musim hujan, peluang hujan, serta lama periode kering ditentukan berdasarkan metode Markov Chain First
Order Probability. Pola sebaran hujan ditentukan berdasarkan isohiet yang dibuat menggunakan program ArcGIS 9.03. Evapotranspirasi dihitung berdasarkan hasil analisis neraca air berdasarkan metode Penman-
Monteith menggunakan program CROPWAT 8.0. Sebaran curah hujan tahunan di Kabupaten Bone didominasi oleh pola hujan tahunan >2.000 mm dan 1.500–2.000 mm dan sebagian kecil wilayah Timur dengan curah hujan tahunan <1.000 mm. Tingginya curah hujan yang berlangsung sepanjang tahun menyebabkan rata-rata periode hari kering relatif pendek yaitu 66–92 hari. Evapotranspirasi potensial di wilayah PG Camming berkisar 1.268–1.288 mm sehingga potensi curah hujan dapat memenuhi kebutuhan air tanaman tebu. Tekstur tanah di sebagian besar wilayah pengembangan tebu di Bone adalah tekstur berat dan drainase lahan jelek maka potensi lahan tergenang cukup tinggi. Dengan potensi sumber daya iklim tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa di sebagian besar wilayah PG Bone dan PG Camming optimasi masa tanam sangat penting dan menggunakan varietas tebu masak awal yang tahan kelebihan air terutama pada wilayah dengan curah hujan >2.000 mm/tahun. Selain itu perlu ditunjang dengan usaha memanen air hujan yang melimpah dan perbaikan drainase. Waktu tanam yang optimum adalah tengah bulan pertama Oktober sampai tengah bulan pertama November (10A–11A) di wilayah PG Camming dan tengah bulan pertama November (11A) di wilayah PG Bone.

 

One of sugar cane cultivation area of dry land in South Sulawesi  concentrated in Bone regency with two sugar mills (Bone and Camming). The productivity of sugar cane and sugar are fluctuated and mostly caused
by climatic factors. Therefore, climate resources in Bone regency that influence sugar cane growth and yield need to be evaluated. Analysis of climate data in Bone regency was conducted from June 2012 up to December 2013 based on the data of rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, humidity, sun shine duration, and wind speed collected from the Department of Irrigation Works South Sulawesi Province, Camming and Bone Sugar Mills. Cane and sugar production were collected from Camming and Bone Sugar Mills. The onset and end of rainy season, length of dryspell, and rainfall probability were analysed by The Markov
Chain First Order Probability Method. Rainfall pattern was determined by using isohiet. Evapotranspiration was calculated by water balance analysis. Rainfall pattern in Bone was dominated by annual rainfall pattern >2,000 mm and 1,500–2,000 mm, eastern part of Bone has annual rainfall pattern <1,000 mm. The high rainfall that lasted throughout the year resulted in relatively short average dry day (66–92 days). Potential evapotranspiration in the region of Camming Sugar Mill ranges from 1,268 to 1,288 mm so the annual rainfall can meet crop water requirement of sugar cane. Heavy soil texture and bad soil drainage in Bone regions resulted in flooded land. Based on climate resources, it indicates that in most areas of the Bone and Camming Sugar Mills optimization of planting time is critical, use of sugar cane varieties with early maturity and resistant to excess water, and effort to harvest the abundant rainwater especially in areas with rainfall >2000
mm/year, and improvement in drainage system. Optimum planting season in Camming Sugar Mill is the first half of October to second half of  November (10A–11A) and the first half of November (11A) in Bone Sugar
Mill.


Keywords


Tebu; PG Bone; PG Camming; sebaran hujan; evapotranspirasi potensial , Sugar cane; Bone Sugar Mill; Camming Sugar Mill; rainfall distribution; potential evapotranspiration

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bultas.v7n1.2015.28-44

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