Stabilitas Hasil Sepuluh Genotipe Rosela Herbal (Hibiscus sabdariffa var. Sabdariffa) di Daerah Pengembangan

Untung Setyo-Budi, . Marjani, Rully Dyah Purwati

Abstract


Rosela herbal (Hibiscus sabdariffa var. Sabdariffa L.) baru berkembang secara komersial di Indonesia sejak 2005 untuk makanan dan minuman kesehatan. Keunggulan rosela herbal terletak pada kandungan vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin B, dan bahan aktif (asam amino) seperti antosianin, gossypektine, glucoside hibiscin, dan flavonoid. Uji stabiltas hasil yang bertujuan untuk memperoleh beberapa genotipe unggul harapan rose-la herbal dilaksanakan di sembilan lokasi yakni Kabupaten: Malang, Blitar, Kediri, Situbondo, Grobogan, Ken-dal, dan Pati selama tiga tahun yakni dari tahun 2009–2012. Pada uji ini digunakan 10 genotipe rosela herbal yang ditanam pada petak berukuran 45 m2 (120 tan./plot). Pengujian ini menggunakan rancangan acak ke-lompok dengan 3 ulangan. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap tinggi tanaman, jumlah kapsul per tanaman, bo-bot 100 kelopak kering, hasil kapsul segar, kelopak segar, dan kelopak kering per ha. Analisa kandungan nu-trisi terhadap kelopak bunga rosela dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Kimia (MIPA) Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang. Pendugaan interaksi genotipe dengan lingkungan dilakukan dengan analisis gabungan semua lokasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa genotipe 455 (hijau), 1575 (merah), 1596 (ungu), dan 678-U (ungu) memiliki potensi hasil kelopak kering dan kandungan nutrisi yang tinggi de-ngan daya adaptasi luas. Potensi produksi kelopak kering genotipe-genotipe tersebut berturut-turut adalah: 544,98 kg; 478,60 kg; 554,73 kg; dan 471,46 kg per ha dengan kandungan vit. C/antosianin (mg/100 g ke-lopak kering): 345,40 mg/1,442 mg; 2.033,52 mg/14,697 mg; 188,00 mg/0,003 mg; 988,68 mg/9,814 mg.

 

Herb roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa var. Sabdariffa L.) is commercially planted in Indonesia since 2005 for the food and beverage health. Roselle herbal contents C, A, and B vitamins and other active ingredients (amino acids) as anthocyanin, gossypectine, hibiscin glucoside, and flavonoids. Stabilty trials results aimed to obtain superior genotypes of roselle herbs were conducted at nine locations (districts) namely: Malang, Blitar, Kediri, Situbondo, Grobogan, Kendal, and Pati for three years (2009–2012). Ten roselle herbs genotypes were tested in this experiment, planted in 45 m2 plots (120 plants/plot). The research was arranged in randomized block design with three replications. Parameters observed were: plant height, number of capsules per plant, dry weight of 100 calyx, weight of fresh capsules, fresh calyxs, and dried calyx per ha. Analysis of nutrient contents of roselle calyx was conducted at the Laboratory of Chemistry (MIPA) State Islamic University (UIN) Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang. Estimation of genotype by environment interaction is done by combined analysis of data from all locations. Experimental results showed that genotypes 455 (green), 1575 (red), 1596 (purple), and 678-N (purple) have the potential of dried calyx and high nutrient content with wide adaptability, with dried calyx production potency is: 544.98 kg, 478.60 kg, 554.73 kg, and 471.46 kg per ha respectively. The content of vitamin C/anthocyanins (mg/100 g dried calyx) are: 345.40 mg/1.442 mg, 2,033.52 mg/14.697 mg, 188.00 mg/0.003 mg, and 988.68 mg/9.814 mg respectively.


Keywords


Rosela herbal; uji multilokasi; stabilitas; daya hasil; kandungan nutrisi; Hibiscus sabdariffa Herbal roselle; multilocation trials; stability; yield; nutrient content; Hibiscus sabdariffa

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bultas.v6n2.2014.59-68

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