Pengaruh Cekaman Air Terhadap Karakter Fisiologis Tembakau Temanggung dan Kaitannya dengan Hasil dan Kadar Nikotin Rajangan Kering

. Djumali, Sri Mulyaningsih

Abstract


Tembakau temanggung ditanam pada akhir musim penghujan sehingga sering mengalami cekaman air dan berakibat pada penurunan hasil dan kadar nikotin rajangan kering. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh cekaman air terhadap karakter fisiologis tembakau temanggung serta kaitannya dengan hasil dan kadar nikotin rajangan kering. Penelitian dilakukan di rumah kaca Balittas Malang pada Maret–Oktober 2010 dengan menggunakan Rancangan Petak Terbagi dan diulang 3 kali. Petak utama terdiri atas 3 jenis tanah yakni Komplek Eutrudepts-Hapludalfs, Komplek Dystrudepts-Hapludalfs, dan Vitraquands. Anak petak terdiri atas 5 tingkat kelembapan tanah (60, 70, 80, 90, dan 100% dari kapasitas lapangan). Hasil penelitian me-nunjukkan bahwa cekaman air pada tiga jenis tanah berpengaruh negatif terhadap konduktivitas stomata, laju fotosintesis, hasil dan kadar nikotin rajangan kering, serta berpengaruh positif terhadap bobot spesifik daun. Pengaruh cekaman air terhadap hasil rajangan kering terjadi melalui penurunan konduktivitas stomata dan laju fotosintesis selama fase setelah pemangkasan. Pengaruh cekaman air terhadap kadar nikotin terjadi me-lalui penurunan konduktivitas stomata sebelum pembungaan dan setelah pemangkasan, penurunan laju fotosintesis setelah pemangkasan, dan peningkatan bobot spesifik daun setelah pemangkasan.

 

Temanggung tobacco is grown at the end of wet season which so often experience water stress. Water stress can decrease dry slice yield and nicotine content. The study was aimed to determine the effect of water stress on physiological characteristics of temanggung tobacco and its relation to dry slice yield and nicotine content. Research was conducted in greenhouse of Indonesian Sweetener and Fibre Crops Research Institute, Malang from March to October 2010 using splitplot design and repeated three times. The main plot consisted of three types of soil (Complex Eutrudepts-Hapludalfs, Complex Dystrudepts-Hapludalfs, and Vitraquands). The Subplot consisted of five soil moisture levels (60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% of field capacity). The results showed that water stress on the third series of the soil negatively affect stomatal conductivity, the photosynthesis rate, dry slice yield and nicotine content, as well as the positive effect on specific leaf weight. Effect of water stress on dry slice yield occurred through the decrease of stomata conductivity and photosynthetic rate during the phase after topping. The effect of water stress on nicotine content occurred through a reduction in stomatal conductivity before flowering and after topping, decrease of photosynthetic rate after topping, and increase of specific leaf weight after topping.


Keywords


Cekaman air; fisiologi; tembakau; hasil; nikotin; temanggung, Water stress; physiology; tobacco; yield; nicotine; temanggung

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bultas.v5n2.2013.78-90

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