Karakter Agronomi yang Berpengaruh Terhadap Hasil dan Mutu Rajangan Kering Tembakau Temanggung

. Djumali

Abstract


Hasil dan mutu tembakau temanggung merupakan hasil interaksi pengaruh genetik tanaman dan kondisi ling-kungan tumbuh. Pada tembakau virginia, peubah-peubah agronomi tanaman merupakan karakter genetik ta-naman yang mempengaruhi hasil dan mutu. Pada tembakau temanggung, hal ini belum diketahui. Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk memperoleh peubah agronomi sebagai karakter genetik tembakau temanggung dan ka-itannya dengan hasil dan mutu rajangan kering dilakukan di rumah kaca Balittas, Malang sejak Maret–Agus-tus 2008. Sembilan kultivar tembakau temanggung disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok yang diulang ti-ga kali. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap peubah agronomi yang dimulai pada saat pemangkasan sampai pa-nen akhir. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peubah agronomi yang meliputi tinggi tanaman, sudut daun, luas daun, jumlah daun, bobot spesifik daun, luas daun per helai, bobot kering tanaman, bobot kering tajuk, bobot kering akar, rasio tajuk/akar, bobot kering batang, bobot kering daun, bobot kering bunga, dan bobot kering tunas samping merupakan karakter genetik tembakau temanggung. Karakter agronomi tersebut mem-pengaruhi hasil dan mutu rajangan kering dengan total pengaruh masing-masing sebesar 92,8% dan 76,7%. Lima karakter agronomi utama yang mempengaruhi hasil rajangan kering adalah luas daun per helai, jumlah daun, bobot spesifik daun, tinggi tanaman, dan bobot kering daun dengan total pengaruh sebesar 89,4%. Adapun lima karakter agronomi utama yang mempengaruhi mutu rajangan kering adalah luas daun, rasio tajuk/akar, bobot kering tanaman, bobot kering bunga, dan tinggi tanaman dengan total pengaruh sebesar 75,7%.

 

The yield and quality of temanggung tobacco are influenced by plant genetic and growth environmental. In virginia tobacco, plant agronomic variables were genetical characteristics determining yield and quality. The effect of agronomical characteristic on yield and quality of temanggung tobacco is not yet well defined. The research which aim to find plant agronomical variables as genetic characters and its relationship on dry slice and quality of temanggung tobacco, was conducted in glass house of IToFCRI, Malang from March–August 2008. Nine cultivars of temanggung tobacco were arranged in randomized block design and three replica-tions. The results showed that agronomic variables i.e. plant height, leaf angle, leaf area, number of leaf, spe-cific leaf weight, leaf area per strand, plant dry weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, shoot/root ratio, bast dry weight, leaf dry weight, flower dry weight, and sucker dry weight were genetic characters of temang-gung tobacco, which had effect on yield and quality with total effect of them were 92.8% and 76.7% res-pectively. Leaf area per strand, number of leaf, specific leaf weight, plant height, and leaf dry weight were agronomical characteristics which had significant effect on dry slice yield of 89.4%. Leaf area, shoot/ root ra-tio, plant dry weight, flower dry weight, and plant height were agronomical characteristics which had signi-ficant effect on quality of 75.7%.


Keywords


Tembakau, Nicotiana tabacum, Temanggung, agronomi, karakter, hasil, mutu ;Tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, Temanggung, agronomy, character, yield, quality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/bultas.v3n1.2011.17-29

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