Multifungsi Biochar dalam Budi Daya Tebu

Budi Hariyono

Abstract


Biochar (biomassa charcoal) adalah bahan padat kaya karbon (C), berasal dari biomassa yang dipanaskan dengan suhu <700oC dalam kondisi tanpa atau sedikit oksigen, bertujuan menyimpan karbon dalam tanah dan memperbaiki kualitas tanah. Biomassa dikonversi menjadi biochar dengan pirolisis atau dengan pengarangan sederhana. Biochar memiliki sifat fisika-kimia yang dapat berfungsi memperbaiki kualitas tanah. Sifat fisik biochar yang penting adalah luas permukaan yang besar dan adanya pori mikro, yang membuatnya memiliki kemampuan menyerap sangat tinggi. Sifat kimia biochar yang penting adalah permukaannya yang memiliki gugus fungsional yang dapat bersifat hidrofilik dan hidrofobik, asam dan basa, sehingga dapat bereaksi dengan larutan di sekitarnya.  Kualitas tanah sebagai media tumbuh tanaman tebu ditentukan oleh kandungan bahan organik (C-organik). Umumnya kadar C-organik lahan pengembangan tebu rendah – sangat rendah. Upaya perbaikan status C-organik (kualitas tanah) dengan biochar lebih efisien dibanding aplikasi bahan organik lainnya, karena tahan terhadap degradasi sehingga karbon lebih stabil di dalam tanah. Aplikasi biochar menyebabkan perubahan sifat fisika tanah, yakni: struktur, porositas, distribusi ukuran pori tanah, agregasi, sehingga dapat memperbaiki aerasi tanah, kapasitas menyimpan air. Aplikasi biochar memperbaiki sifat kimia tanah: meningkatkan kapasitas tukar kation, memegang hara, mengurangi pencucian hara, bioremediasi kontaminan logam berat dan pestisida serta mendukung aktivitas mikrobia di rizosfir. Perbaikan sifat fisika dan kimia tanah akibat aplikasi biochar sangat mendukung budidaya tebu. Limbah biomassa tebu sebaiknya tidak dibakar terbuka, melainkan dikonversi menjadi biochar untuk dikembalikan ke dalam tanah, dengan demikian kualitas (karbon) tanah dapat dipertahankan bahkan ditingkatkan.

Biochar Multifunction in Sugarcane Cultivation

 

ABSTRACT

Biochar is a solid carbon (C)-rich material, derived from a heated biomass with a <700oC temperature without or slightly oxygen condition, aimed carbon sequestration and improving the soil quality. Biomass is converted to biochar with pyrolysis. The physical properties of the biochar are large surface areas and the presence of micro pores makes them very high absorbing capability. Biochar chemical properties in the form of a functional group on its surface make it can be hydrophilic-hydrophobic, acid-base, so as to react with the surrounding solution.  Soil quality is determined by the content of organic matter (organic-C). Generally organic-C level of sugarcane land is low to very low. The application of biochar is more efficient than other organic material in the improvement of organic-C status, because biochar is resistant to degradation so that carbon is more stable in soil. The application of biochar changed the soil physical properties (structure, porosity, distribution of soil pore size, aggregation), so that it can improve soil aeration and water holding capacity. The application of biochar improved soil chemical properties: increased cation exchange capacity, hold nutrients, reduce nutrient leaching, bioremediation of heavy metal and pesticide contaminants and support microbial activity in Rhizosphere. The improvement of soil physical and chemical properties due to biochar application strongly supports sugarcane cultivation. The waste of sugarcane biomass should not be burned, it should be converted into biochar and returned to soil, so that the soil quality can be maintained even improved.


Keywords


soil biomass charcoal, chemical physical properties, sugarcane

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v13n2.2021.%25p

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