Pemanfaatan Lignin dari Biomassa Tanaman Serat Untuk Sumber Bioenergi

Farida Rahayu, Mala Murianingrum, Nurindah Nurindah

Abstract


Abstrak

Biomassa lignosellulosa memiliki potensi sebagai material penghasil bahan kimia dan biomaterial.  Lignin adalah polimer alami yang ketersediaannya paling melimpah kedua setelah selulosa. Lignin merupakan biopolimer berbasis fenol dan memiliki kandungan karbon lebih tinggi daripada oksigen yaitu dengan ratio 2:1 sehingga kandungan energinya lebih besar daripada selulosa. Hal ini menjadikan lignin sebagai bahan baku untuk  memproduksi bahan bakar dan senyawa aromatik seperti fenol, benzene, toluene, xilen, karbon fiber, karbon aktif dan material komposit lainnya. Bahan-bahan tersebut digunakan secara berkelanjutan dalam suatu produksi, sebagai sumber energi, katalis dan untuk mengatasi polusi lingkungan atau kontaminasi. Tersedia berbagai sumber lignin, termasuk tanaman serat seperti agave, kenaf dan rami. Sifat fisik dan sifat kimia lignin akan berbeda antara satu dengan lainnya tergantung dari asal sumbernya dan metode ekstraksi yang digunakan. Keberhasilan dalam mencapai tujuan pemanfaatan lignin tergantung pada pengembangan teknologi untuk mengatasi tantangan-tantangan, seperti: 1) teknologi pretreatmen yang efisien dan teknologi ektraksi untuk pemisahan lignin dengan kemurnian tinggi; 2) analisis dan karakterisasi kuantitatif yang tepat untuk lignin dalam proses transformasi kimia; 3) pendekatan baru untuk konversi lignin menjadi produk berharga. Tinjauan ini merangkum inovasi mutakhir terbaru dari konversi lignin dengan fokus pada tiga aspek utama yang disebutkan di atas serta potensi tanaman serat sebagai sumber lignin yang terbarukan.

Abstract

 

Utilization of Lignin from fiber crops biomass for bioenergy resources

 

Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to produce chemicals and biomaterials. Lignin is a natural polymer whose availability is the second most abundant after cellulose. Lignin is a phenol-based biopolymer and has a higher carbon content than oxygen in a ratio of 2: 1, so that the energy content is greater than cellulose. This makes lignin as a raw material for producing fuels and aromatic compounds such as phenols, benzene, toluene, xylene, carbon fiber, activated carbon and other composite materials. These materials are used sustainably in a production, as a source of energy, as a catalyst and to overcome environmental pollution or contamination. Various sources of lignin are available, including fiber plants such as agave, kenaf and flax. The physical and chemical properties of lignin differ from one another depending on the origin of the source and the extraction method used. Success in achieving the goal to utilize lignin depends on developing technology to overcome the following challenges, such as: 1) efficient pretreatment technology and extraction technology for the separation of high-purity lignin; 2) appropriate quantitative analysis and characterization for lignin in the process of chemical transformation; 3) a new approach to the conversion of lignin into valuable products. This review summarizes the latest up-to-date innovations of lignin conversion with a focus on the three main aspects mentioned above and the potential of fiber crops as a source of renewable lignin


Keywords


conversion; biomass; lignin; agave; kenaf; ramie

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v11n2.2019.73-85

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