Pengaruh Ukuran Sampel dan Lama Waktu Destilasi terhadap Rendemen Minyak Atsiri Tembakau Lokal Indonesia

Elda Nurnasari, Heri Prabowo

Abstract


Tanaman tembakau merupakan tanaman yang memiliki aroma yang khas, hal ini menunjukkan bahwa tembakau mengandung minyak atsiri. Ekstraksi minyak atsiri tembakau terkendala rendahnya rendemen minyak atsiri yang dihasilkan. Minyak atsiri tembakau merupakan salah satu diversifikasi produk tembakau non rokok yang dapat dimanfaatkan dalam bidang biofarmaka (antibakteri) dan kosmetik (parfum badan). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh ukuran sampel dan lama waktu destilasi terhadap rendemen minyak atsiri tembakau lokal Indonesia. Daun tembakau berasal dari enam daerah sentra tembakau di Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur. Enam daerah tersebut antara lain Temanggung, Yogyakarta, Purwodadi, Boyolali, Blitar dan Probolinggo. Minyak atsiri tembakau diperoleh dengan metode destilasi uap-air dengan variasi ukuran sampel daun tembakau dan lama waktu destilasi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan dua kali ulangan. Lama waktu destilasi yang digunakan adalah 2; 4; dan 6 jam, sedangkan ukuran serbuk daun tembakau yang digunakan adalah 6; 8; dan 10 mesh. Rendemen tertinggi diperoleh pada daun tembakau ukuran 10 mesh tembakau Boyolali yakni sebesar 3,39% dengan waktu destilasi selama 6 jam.

Effect of Sample Size and Destilation Time on Rendement of Indonesian Tobacco Essential Oil

Tobacco plants are plants that have a distinctive aroma, this shows that tobacco contains essential oils. Tobacco essential oil extraction is constrained by the low yield of essential oil produced. Tobacco essential oil is a diversification of non-tobacco products that can be utilized in the field of biopharmaca (antibacterial) and cosmetics (body perfume). This study aims to extract local tobacco essential oil and increase its yield through variations in leaf powder size and distillation time. Tobacco leaves originate from six tobacco centers in Central and East Java. The six regions are Temanggung, Yogyakarta, Purwodadi, Boyolali, Blitar and Probolinggo. Tobacco essential oil is obtained by the steam water distillation method with variations in the size of the tobacco and the time of distillation. The study was conducted with two replications. The duration of distillation used is 2; 4; and 6 hours, while the size of tobacco leaf powder used is 6; 8; and 10 mesh. The highest yield was obtained in Boyolali tobacco leaf size of 10 mesh which is 3.39% with a distillation time of 6 hours.


Keywords


minyak atsiri, tembakau, rendemen, waktu, mesh

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/btsm.v11n2.2019.47-57

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