Identification of Morphology and Quality Character Determinant of Local Cassava [Manihot esculenta Crantz] Germplasm from West Sumatra

Nirmala F. Devy, Abd. Aziz Syarif, Aryawaita Aryawaita

Abstract


Local germplasm of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) have an economic potential important for West Sumatra community. The local cassava has high morphological diversity. To distinguish different type of cassava, identification of morphology and tuber quality were required. The objective of this research was to identify morphology and tuber quality determinant characters of West Sumatra local Cassava. An analysis was performed on ten local cassava originated from four districts of West Sumatra and three other released varieties. Morphological characterization was performed based on International
Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) standard descriptors, whereas physical and chemical analyses were carried out in the Agricultural Product Technology Laboratory at University of Andalas, Padang. The research was conducted at Sukarami Experimental Station, Solok Regency in March 2015–February 2016. Morphological characters and data quality were first analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA analysis resulted 4 major component axes contributing to a total diversity of 78, 83, and 81.3% on plant morphology, tuber quality, and morphology and tuber color, respectively. Based on those
diversities, the thirteen varieties of cassava could be grouped into six clusters. Special characters that distinguishing between groups was the number of lobes, leaf stem length, shoot color, and leaf width. Meanwhile, based on its chemical content and morphology of tubers, the cassavas were grouped into five clusters, with the distinguishing characters were carbohydrate content, protein content, and tuber color. The varieties that have the highest weight of the tuber/plant were Kuning and Roti 2, with a production of 203–380% higher than the released varieties. On their tubers, varieties that had the lowest levels of HCN were Tangkai Merah-1, Dumai, and Roti 2, whereas those with starch content >35% were Sanjai Padang Jariang, Jurai Merah, Kuning, Roti 2, and Hijau Pesisir Selatan. Each variety has its own specific morphological characters, tuber morphology, and chemical composition.


Keywords


Cassava; diversity; morphology; chemical properties.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v24n1.2018.p53-62

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