Konservasi Anggrek Spesies Alam Menggunakan Eksplan Biji pada Media Vacin & Went

Suskandari Kartikaningrum, Dewi Pramanik, Minangsari Dewanti, Rudy Soehendi, M. Prama Yufdy

Abstract


Konservasi anggrek spesies alam merupakan langkah penting untuk menghindari kepunahan akibat rusaknya habitat alamnya. Tujuan penelitian ialah mengetahui kemampuan tumbuh biji anggrek spesies alam pada media Vacin dan Went (VW) dan menentukan jenis anggrek spesies yang telah berhasil dikonservasi melalui biji. Anggrek spesies alam yang digunakan sebanyak 46 spesies yang berasal dari 18 genus anggrek, yakni Phalaenopsis, Dendrobium, Vanda, Ascocentrum, Paphiopedilum, Rhyncostilis, Neofinetia, Epidendrum, Arachnis, Dimorphosis, Phaius, Spathogottis, Trichoglottis, Arundina, Cymbidium, Renanthera, Armodorum, dan Gramathophylum. Polinasi bunga anggrek dilakukan dengan metode selfing maupun sibling. Buah dipanen saat warna buah berubah menjadi kuning kehijauan dan/atau tekstur buah menjadi lebih lunak. Selanjutnya, sebelum kultur biji, buah disterilkan dan biji disebar pada media VW. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa buah anggrek hasil polinasi mengalami kemasakan antara 34-280 hari setelah polinasi. Biji hasil selfing dari 41 anggrek spesies (dari 46) dapat berkecambah pada media VW dengan umur berkecambah berkisar antara 10-69 hari setelah sebar. Sebanyak 19 anggrek spesies alam mampu membentuk protokorm di atas 70% dan semua protokorm mampu membentuk planlet. Selanjutnya, 19 spesies dapat diaklimatisasi dengan kisaran waktu antara 272-552 hari setelah terbentuk protokorm, Sebanyak 16 spesies belum dapat diaklimatisasi karena planlet yang masih kecil, sedang 6 spesies tidak tumbuh. Arundina graminifolia merupakan anggrek yang paling cepat membentuk protokorm dan Grammatophylum sp. merupakan anggrek yang paling lama membentuk protokorm. Biji Ascocentrum aurantiacum, Aerides odorata, Phalaenopsis luddemanniana, P. violacea, dan Cymbidium finlaysonianum tidak mampu membentuk protokorm. Dari penelitian ini diketahui bahwa media VW dapat digunakan untuk konservasi anggrek spesies alam melalui perbanyakan dengan menggunakan biji.

Keywords


anggrek; spesies alam; konservasi; perkecambahan biji

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v23n2.2017.p109-118

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