Keragaman Buah Jeruk Keprok SoE Mutan Generasi M1V2 Hasil Induksi Mutasi Sinar Gamma

Hidayatul Arisah, Baiq Dina Mariana

Abstract


Mutasi sinar gamma dapat terjadi secara acak pada level alelik yang menghasilkan keragaman genetik baru. Mutasi pada jeruk menginduksi keragaman karakter secara kuantitatif maupun kualitatif. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah mengetahui pengaruh mutasi terhadap peningkatan keragaman karakter buah pada mutan tanaman jeruk lokal SoE. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan dan Laboratorium Pemuliaan Tanaman Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika Jawa Timur, tahun 2014. Pengamatan dilakukan secara deskriptif berdasarkan Internasional Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), pada karakter bobot buah, tinggi buah, diameter buah, ketebalan kulit, jumlah biji, jumlah juring, volume jus, warna kulit buah, warna jus, dan rasa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengaruh mutasi pada peningkatan keragaman karakter kualitatif relatif rendah; mutan hampir mirip dengan tanaman kontrol untuk karakter kualitatif. Perbedaan pada karakter kuantitatif, ditunjukkan dengan nilai koefisien keragaman 5,06-33,89%, nilai tertinggi pada karakter jumlah biji, sedangkan karakter jumlah juring memiliki nilai terendah. Terdapat tujuh aksesi yang yang menghasilkan buah dengan persentase buah seedless (jumlah biji ≤5) mencapai 90%. Mutasi induksi menyebabkan berkurangnya jumlah biji dan menurunnya ukuran ketebalan kulit buah dibanding dengan kontrol SoE. Berdasarkan analisis klaster, aksesi-aksesi mutan terseleksi mempunyai tingkat keragaman kecil dengan level kemiripan 76,40%.


Keywords


jeruk keprok (Citrus reticulata); radiasi sinar gamma; karakter morfologi.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v23n2.2017.p69-80

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