Karakter Morfologi Tujuh Aksesi Pisang dari Maluku Utara

Indra Hendaru, Y. Hidayat, M. Ramdhani

Abstract


Abstract

Indonesia is one of the diversity centre of banana. The North Maluku area has a high diversity of banana, which cultivated in farm and yard to produce food and other utilization, but has not been characterized yet morphologically and genetically. The objective of this study was to characterize banana accessions collected by BPTP Maluku Utara. The study was conducted from May 2014 to May 2015 in Germplasm Station of Assessment Institute for Agricultural TechnologyNorth Maluku. This study used seven accessions of cultivated banana, namely Emas, Jarum, Tembaga, and Gohu Banana (Tidore Kepulauan City), Bunga (East Halmahera Regency), Galela (North Halmahera Regency), and Mulu Bebe (West Halmahera Regency). The morphological character observed were 32 qualitative characters and 15 quantitative characters based on standard descriptors from IPGRI. The data were analized by cluster analysis. The results showed that variability of morphology characters were found in the observed banana accesions. The cluster analysis showed that genetic diversity of seven banana accessions was divided two group clusters. The first, cluster I consisted of Gohu and Bunga banana. Second, cluster II consisted of Jarum, Emas, Galela, Tembaga, and Mulu Bebe banana. Emas banana and Jarum banana had the most maximum similar morphology characters of 63,12%, meanwhile Gohu banana had the lowest similar morphology characters from other accessions.

 

Abstrak

Indonesia merupakan bagian dari pusat keragaman pisang. Kawasan Maluku Utara memiliki keragaman pisang yang tinggi dan mudah ditemukan di kebun dan pekarangan untuk produksi bahan pangan maupun tujuan lain. Namun, keragaman tersebut belum dikarakterisasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkarakterisasi aksesi pisang yang dikoleksi BPTP Maluku Utara berdasarkan karakter morfologi. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Mei 2014 sampai Mei 2015 di Kebun Plasma Nutfah BPTP Maluku Utara. Penelitian menggunakan tujuh jenis pisang yaitu pisang Emas, pisang Jarum, pisang Tembaga, dan pisang Gohu (Kota Tidore Kepulauan), pisang Bunga (Kab. Halmahera Timur), pisang Galela (Kab. Halmahera Utara), dan pisang Mulu Bebe (Kab. Halmahera Barat). Karakter morfologi yang diamati meliputi 32 karakter kualitatif dan 15 karakter kuan¬titatif berdasarkan panduan deskriptor dari IPGRI. Data hasil pengamatan karakter morfologi dianalisis dengan analisis klaster untuk mengetahui hubungan kekerabatan dari jenis pisang yang diamati. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keragaman genetik aksesi pisang yang diamati, terbagi pada dua kelompok yaitu kelompok 1 (pisang Gohu dan Bunga) dan kelompok II (pisang Jarum, Emas, Galela, Tembaga, dan Mulu Bebe). Aksesi pisang yang memiliki kemiripan paling tinggi ialah pisang Emas dengan Jarum yaitu 63,12%, sedangkan pisang Gohu memiliki hubungan kekerabatan paling jauh di antara seluruh aksesi.


Keywords


pisang; deskripsi; karakter; keragaman genetik.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v23n1.2017.p%25p

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