Evaluasi Plasma Nutfah Padi Gogo Berdasarkan Karakter Kuantitatif Perakaran Tanaman

yusi nurmalita andarini, Higa Afza, Lina Herlina, Sutoro nLN

Abstract


Abstract Generally, upland rice productivity is lower than irrigated rice due to physical characteristic, water land limitation, and rooting characteristic. Upland rice variety which could be adaptive towards marginal land environment can be achieved through plant breeding. This study aimed to evaluate rooting system of upland rice germplasm through its rooting ability to penetrate into hard coating and to measure rooting which expected to related with its adaptability towards dry environment and soil density. This study was implemented in ICABIOGRAD’s glass house, Bogor during July–August 2015. A hundred of local varieties of germplasm seeds originated from North Sumatra, South Sumatra, North Sulawesi, Jambi, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, NTT, Central Java, East Java, West Java, DIY, and Banten provinces were planted inside pot with basic materials were coated with mix combination of 60% paraffin and 40% vaseline which equal with 12 bars of strength. The results showed grouping of 100 variety upand rice germplasms could be devided based on variety with unsimilar charachteristic with others variety, which were Si Gambiri Etek from North Sumatra, Cikapudeng variety from Banten, and Ketan Kasumba B variety from Banten. Germplasm with the best rooting characteristic (roots weight and high root canopy ratio) can be used as genetic resources for plant breeding program.  Abstrak Produktivitas padi gogo umumnya lebih rendah dibanding dengan padi sawah disebabkan oleh sifat fisik dan terbatasnya air dalam tanah serta karakteristik perakaran tanaman. Varietas padi gogo yang adaptif pada lingkungan lahan marginal dapat diperoleh melalui pemuliaan tanaman. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi sistem perakaran plasma nutfah padi gogo melalui kemampuan perakarannya menembus lapisan keras dan untuk mengukur perakaran yang diduga berkaitan dengan adaptabilitasnya terhadap lingkungan kekeringan dan kepadatan tanah. Penelitian dilakukan di rumah kaca BB Biogen Bogor pada bulan Juli–Agustus 2015. Benih plasma nutfah 100 aksesi (varietas lokal) yang berasal dari provinsi Sumatra Utara, Sumatra Selatan, Sulawesi Utara, Jambi, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, NTT, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Jawa Barat, DIY, dan Banten ditanam pada pot dengan bagian dasar dilapisi dengan kombinasi campuran 60% parafin dan 40% vaselin yang setara dengan kekerasan 12 bar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pengelompokan plasma nutfah 100 varietas padi gogo dapat dikelompokkan berdasarkan varietas yang karakteristiknya jauh berbeda dengan yang lain, yaitu varietas Si Gambiri Etek asal Sumatra Utara, varietas Cikapundeng asal Banten, dan varietas Ketan Kasumba B asal Banten. Plasma nutfah yang memiliki karakteristik perakaran baik (bobot akar dan rasio akar tajuk yang tinggi) dapat digunakan sebagai tetua dalam program pemuliaan tanaman.

Keywords


padi gogo; penetrasi akar; plasma nutfah

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abd Allah, A.A. (2009) Genetic studies on leaf rolling and some root traits under drought conditions in rice (Oryza sativa L.). African Journal of Biotechnology, 8 (22), 6241–6248.

Abd Allah, A.A. (2010) Screening rice genotypes for drought resistance in Egypt. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science, 2 (7), 205–215.

Acuna, T.L.B. & Wade, L.J. (2005) Root penetration ability of wheat through thin wax-layers under drought and well-watered conditions. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 56 (11), 1235–1244.

Babu, R.C., Shashidhar, H.E., Lilley, J.M., Thanh, N.D., Ray, J.D., Sadasivam, S., Sarkarung, S., Toole, J.C. & Nguyen, H.T. (2001) Variation in root penetration ability, osmotic adjustment and dehydration tolerance among accessions of rice adapted to rainfed lowland and upland ecosystems. Plant Breeding, 120 (3), 233–238.

Comas, L.H., Becker, S.R., Cruz, V.M.V., Byrne, P.F. & Dierig, D.A. (2013) Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought. Frontiers in Plant Science, 4 (442), 1−16.

Courtois, B., Ahmadi, N., Khowaja, F., Price, A.H., Rami, J.F., Frouin, J., Hamelin, C. & Ruiz, M. (2009) Rice root genetic architecture: Meta-analysis from a drought QTL database. Rice, 2, 115–128.

Folkard, A., Dingkuhn, M., Sow, A. & Audebert, A. (2005) Drought-induced changes in rooting patterns and assimilate partitioning between root and shoot in upland rice. Field Crops Research, 93, 223–236.

Fukai, S. & Cooper, M. (1995) Development of drought-resistant cultivars using physiomorphological traits in rice. Field Crops Research, 40 (2), 67–86.

Ganapathy, S., Ganesh, SK., Shanmugasundaram, P. & Babu, R.C. (2010) Studies on root traits for drought tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under controlled (PVC pipes) condition. Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 1 (4), 1016–1020.

Ju, C., Buresh, R.J., Wang, Z., Zhang, H., Liu, L., Yang, J. & Zang, J. (2015) Root and shoot traits for rice varieties with higher grain yield and higher nitrogen use efficiency at lower nitrogen rates application. Field Crops Research, 175, 47–55.

Kato, Y., Kamoshita K., Jun A. & Junko Y. (2007) Improvement of rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth in upland conditions with deep tillage and mulch. Soil and Tillage Research, 92 (1–2), 30–44.

Morrison, F.D. (1978) Multivariate statistical methods. Singapore, Mc Graw Hill.

Ray, J.D, Yu, L., McCouch, S.R., Champoux, M.C., Wang, G. & Nguyen, H.T. (1996) Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with root penetration ability in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 92, 627–636.

Sinaga, R. (2008) Keterkaitan nisbah tajuk akar dan efisiensi penggunaan air pada rumput gajah dan rumput raja akibat penurunan ketersediaan air tanah. Jurnal Biologi Sumatera, 3 (1), 29–35.

Srividhya, A., Vemireddy, L.R., Ramanarao, P.V., Sridhar, S., Jayaprada, M., Anuradha, G., Srilakshmi, B., Reddy, H.K., Hariprasad, A.S. & Siddiq, E.A. (2011) Molecular mapping of QTLs for drought related traits at seedling stage under PEG induced stress conditions in rice. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2, 190–201.

Suardi, D. (2000) Kajian metode skrining padi tahan kekeringan. Buletin AgroBio, 3 (2), 67–73.

Suardi, D. (2002) Perakaran galur dan varietas padi berpotensi hasil tinggi. Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, 21 (3), 54–58.

Suhartini, T. & Sutoro (2007) Pengelompokan plasma nutfah padi liar (Oryza spp.) berdasarkan peubah kuantitatif tanaman. Berita Biologi, 8 (6), 445–453.

Suralta, R.R. (2010) Plastic root system development responses to drought-enhanced nitrogen uptake during progressive soil drying conditions in rice. The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 93 (4), 458–459.

Uga, Y., Sugimoto, K., Ogawa, S., Rane, J., Ishitani, M., Hara, N., Kitomi, Y., Inukai, Y., Ono, K, Kanno, N., Inoue, H., Takehisa, H., Motoyama, R., Nagamura, Y., Wu, J., matsumoto, T., Takai, T., Okuno, K. & Yano, M. (2013) Control of root system architecture by deeper rooting increases rice yield under drought conditions. Nature Genetics, 45 (9), 1097–1102.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v23n1.2017.p%25p

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Buletin Plasma Nutfah

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


       


Buletin Plasma Nutfah

Jalan Tentara Pelajar 3A, Bogor 16111
Jawa Barat, Indonesia
Telepon: (0251) 8339793, 8337975
Fax: (0251) 8338820
E-mail: buletin.plasmanutfah@gmail.com
Website: http://biogen.litbang.pertanian.go.id

P-ISSN : 1410-4377
E-ISSN : 2549-1393

Akreditasi Nomor: 598/AU3/P2MI-LIPI/03/2015




View My Stats