Eksplorasi Plasma Nutfah Tanaman Pangan di Provinsi Kalimantan Barat

Sri Astuti

Abstract


Abstract

West Kalimantan is are area of tropical rain forest with high rainfall more than 3600 millimeter per year. Potential areas for food crops are 11,6 million ha, only 1,03 million are effective for agriculture activity and 255.339 ha for intensification based on 57.5-73.8% of which used high yielding varieties and less than 42% used local variety. The varieties planted by the native have specific use and maintained from generation to generation. Many of local cultivar were planted by Dayak tribe in the deepest of West Kalimantan. Exploration on Food Crops was conducted to collect germplasm of paddy and palawija which were conserved and evaluated, and would be used as the source of gene in rice genetic improvement. The result of this exploration from the 7 district were 191 accessions germplasm of the food crops which were 129 accessions paddy consists of 69 accessions of lowland rice, 31 accessions of upland rice, and 29 accessions of tidal swamp rice. About 62 accessions palawija germplasm consist of 3 accessions of corns, 11 accessions of cassava, 17 accessions of sweetpotato, 6 accessions of peanut, 1 accessions of mungbean, 6 accessions of jam, 15 accessions of taro, 2 accessions of cowpea, and 1 accessions of jewawut.

Abstrak

Kalimantan Barat mempunyai iklim hutan tropis dengan curah hujan di atas 3600 mm. Dari 11,6 juta ha lahan yang berpotensi untuk tanaman pangan, baru dimanfaatkan 1,03 juta ha. Dari seluas 235.395 ha areal intensifikasi padi, 58,3% di antaranya telah ditanami varietas unggul dan sisanya varietas lokal. Varietas-varietas lokal yang ditanam penduduk mempunyai karakteristik spesifik, merupakan kebanggaan warga yang turun temurun dipertahankan oleh sukunya. Masih banyak jumlahnya kultivar lokal yang ditanam oleh penduduk suku-suku dayak di pedalaman Kalimantan Barat. Eksplorasi tanaman pangan bertujuan untuk mengumpulkan plasma nutfah padi dan palawija untuk dikonservasi, diberdayakan, dan dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber gen, untuk perbaikan sifat ketahanan dan toleransi terhadap hama dan penyakit dalam program pemuliaan tanaman. Hasil eksplorasi dari 7 kabupaten telah terkumpul sejumlah 191 aksesi plasma nutfah tanaman pangan, yaitu sebanyak 129 aksesi padi terdiri dari 69 aksesi padi sawah, 31 aksesi padi ladang dan 29 aksesi padi pasang surut. Sebanyak 62 plasma nutfah palawija terdiri dari 3 aksesi jagung, 11 aksesi ubi kayu, 17 aksesi ubi jalar, 6 aksesi kacang tanah, 1 aksesi kacang hijau, 6 aksesi ubi kelapa/krimbang, 15 aksesi talas, 2 aksesi kacang tunggak dan 1 aksesi jewawut.


Keywords


Exploration; germplasm; food crops.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v10n1.2004.p23-27

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


       


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