Induksi Mutasi dan Keragaman Somaklonal untuk Meningkatkan Ketahanan Penyakit Blas Daun pada Padi Fatmawati

Endang G. Lestari, Iswari S. Dewi, Rossa Yunita, Deden Sukmadjaja

Abstract


In Vitro Culture Application in the form of Somaclonal Variation Combined with Mutagen Introduction for Plant Improvement. Fatmawati is a new type of rice potentially to be developed. The development of this new type of rice in various places of West Java, Central Java and Lampung is often hampered by the blast disease causing the empty grain resulted in the harvest failure. Hence, from January to December 2007. The Indonesia Research Institute for rice in cooperation with Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development conducted research aimed at improving the quality of Fatmawati type of rice through somaclonal variation by mutative induction. In this research, the calli were treated with 1-50 gy gamma ray prior to its regeneration. The shoots produced by this regeneration were then acclimatized in the green house until the production stage. All 342 somaclone lines were sub-sequently tested on its endurance against leaf blast disease using three races of blast isolate namely 001, 033, and 173. The research yielded 21 somaclone lines which were absolutely tolerant to blast disease. These new somaclones were then planted in the green house for further morphological and agronomical observation.

 

Abstrak

Fatmawati merupakan varietas padi tipe baru yang mempunyai potensi hasil tinggi. Pengembangan varietas tersebut di beberapa daerah seperti Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, dan Lampung masih mengalami masalah berupa bulir hampa tinggi dan serangan penyakit blas yang menyebabkan kegagalan panen. Penelitian pemuliaan untuk memperbaiki sifat unggul pada varietas Fatmawati telah dilakukan oleh Balai Besar Penelitian Padi bekerjasama dengan Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian melalui keragaman somaklonal menggunakan induksi mutasi. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Januari-Desember 2007. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan adalah kalus yang diberi perlakuan irradiasi dengan sinar gamma dosis 1-50 Gy kemudian diregenerasikan pada media MS + BA 1 mg/l +IAA 0,8 mg/l. Tunas yang dihasilkan kemudian diaklimatisasi di rumah kaca sampai menghasilkan benih. Sebanyak 342 galur somaklon diuji ketahanannya terhadap penyakit blas daun menggunakan ras isolat 001, 033, dan 173. Hasil penelitian menghasilkan 21 galur somaklon yang sama sekali tidak terserang penyakit blas. Galur somaklon tahan tersebut selanjutnya ditanam di rumah kaca untuk diamati keragaman morfologi dan agronominya.


Keywords


Fatmawati variant; leaf blast evaluation; somaclonal variation.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/blpn.v16n2.2010.p96-102

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