Strategi Komunikasi dalam Tata Kelola Pengembangan Kelapa Sawit di Indonesia

Heldi Yunan Ardian, Delima Hasri Azahari


Natural resource management generally involves parties who have conflicts of power and interests. For Indonesia, palm oil development has a positive impact on people's welfare and economic gain. However, the palm oil industry's growth in its development caused controversy, especially among the international community. In this study, a stakeholder analysis was carried out to determine the degree of influence and interest of the relevant engagements and formulate an appropriate and solutive communication strategy in improving palm oil governance in Indonesia. The stakeholder analysis study was carried out based on the results of three levels of Fairclough discourse analysis based on online media publications, interviews, and observations during 2015-2018. The findings of this study indicate that there are 31 of the 40 stakeholders identified in the Crowd quadrant that showed an uproar about the controversy over oil palm development in Indonesia came from parties who did not need to be significant for governance improvement. On the other hand, stakeholders who have strategic positions are not invited to determine more actively to reach consensus. This study implies that sustainable oil palm development can be achieved if accompanied by promoting constructive communication among stakeholders to reach mutual understanding.



Pengelolaan sumber daya alam umumnya melibatkan pihak-pihak yang memiliki konflik pengaruh dan kepentingan. Bagi Indonesia, pengembangan kelapa sawit memiliki dampak positif pada kesejahteraan rakyat dan pembangunan ekonomi nasional. Namun demikian, industri kelapa sawit dalam perkembangannya menimbulkan kontroversi, terutama di kalangan masyarakat internasional. Dalam kajian ini, analisis pemangku kepentingan dilakukan untuk mengetahui derajat pengaruh dan kepentingan dari pemangku kepentingan yang terlibat serta merumuskan strategi komunikasi yang tepat dan solutif dalam perbaikan tata kelola kelapa sawit di Indonesia. Kajian analisis pemangku kepentingan dilakukan berdasarkan hasil tiga tingkat analisis diskursus Fairclough berdasarkan publikasi media online, wawancara, dan obervasi selama periode 2015-2018. Temuan kajian ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 31 dari 40 pemangku kepentingan yang teridentifikasi berada pada kuadran Crowd yang menunjukkan adanya indikasi bahwa keriuhan mengenai kontroversi pengembangan kelapa sawit di Indonesia bersumber dari pihak-pihak yang sebetulnya tidak terlalu berpengaruh signifikan terhadap perbaikan tata kelola. Di lain pihak, pemangku kepentingan yang memiliki posisi strategis tidak diajak untuk berpartisipasi lebih aktif untuk mencapai sebuah konsensus. Studi ini memberikan implikasi bahwa pembangunan kelapa sawit berkelanjutan dapat dicapai apabila disertai dengan mengedepankan komunikasi konstruktif antarpara pemangku kepentingan untuk mencapai pemahahaman bersama.


discourse analysis; environmental communication; palm oil; stakeholder analysis; analisis diskursus; komunikasi lingkungan; kelapa sawit; analisis pemangku kepentingan

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